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Publication numberWO1986002701 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberPCT/DK1985/000102
Publication date9 May 1986
Filing date30 Oct 1985
Priority date1 Nov 1984
Also published asEP0199799A1
Publication numberPCT/1985/102, PCT/DK/1985/000102, PCT/DK/1985/00102, PCT/DK/85/000102, PCT/DK/85/00102, PCT/DK1985/000102, PCT/DK1985/00102, PCT/DK1985000102, PCT/DK198500102, PCT/DK85/000102, PCT/DK85/00102, PCT/DK85000102, PCT/DK8500102, WO 1986/002701 A1, WO 1986002701 A1, WO 1986002701A1, WO 8602701 A1, WO 8602701A1, WO-A1-1986002701, WO-A1-8602701, WO1986/002701A1, WO1986002701 A1, WO1986002701A1, WO8602701 A1, WO8602701A1
InventorsChristian Riisager
ApplicantChristian Riisager
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: Patentscope, Espacenet
A windmill rotor with adjustable-pitch blades, as well as windmills with such a rotor
WO 1986002701 A1
Abstract
In a windmill rotor with adjustable-pitch wings (6) and a nose stay (21) for each wing and intermediate stays (22) between the wings, the new feature is that at each wing the nose stays (21) and the intermediate stays (22) are secured to the outermost end of a generally radial bearing shaft (8), the innermost end of which is secured to the hub (7), and that at the part of the wing root (14) forwardmost in the direction of rotation (13), the wing (6) is supported on an inner (15) and outer (16) wing turning bearing or pitch bearing respectively, placed at the innermost and outermost ends respectively of the bearing shaft (8). With this arrangement, a stable support of the wings (6) is attained, even with relatively weak bearing shafts (8). In an embodiment, the intermediate stays (22) are connected to rigid radial arms (23) on the hub (7). This arrangement relieves the bearing shaft (8) of the tangential forces due to wind and gravity. A windmill with such a rotor is also described.
Claims  (OCR text may contain errors)
C L A I M S
1. A windmill rotor (4) of the kind comprising a) a hub (7) with an axially protruding hub nose (20) , b) a number of wings (6) extending substantially radi- ally from and being rotatably supported on said hub
(7) about axes in general extending radially, c) a nose stay (21) extending from the outermost part of the root (14) of each wing (6) to a part of the hub nose (20) axially spaced from the hub (7) , d) a number of intermediate stays (22) connecting the outermost parts of the roots (14) of the wings (6) with each other, and e) means (18,19.) for adjusting the angle of the wings
(6) relative to the wind direction (5) by turning the wings about said axes, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f) for each wing (6) a bearing shaft (8) , at its radial¬ ly outermost end secured to the nose stay (21) and the intermediate stays (22) at the ends of said stays closest to the wing (6) , said bearing shaft (8) at its radially innermost end. being secured to said hub
(7) and at its outermost and innermost ends respec¬ tively carrying pitch bearings (16 and 15 resp.) , with which the outermost and the innermost part re- spectively of said wing root (14) is connected.
2. A windmill rotor according to claim 1, c h a ¬ r a c t e r i z e d in that at or near its central part each intermediate stay (22) is connected to the hub (7) through an arm (23) extending substantially radially and rigidly connected to the hub (7) .
3. A windmill rotor according to claim 1 or 2, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the nose stays (21) and/or the intermediate stays (22) are adjustable in length.
4. A windmill rotor according to any one or any of the claims 1-3, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the pitch bearings (15,16) are placed in such a manner rela¬ tive to each wing (6) , that the wing turning axis (the axis of the shaft (8)) is situated between the forward edge of the wing (6) and the aerodynamic centre line of the.wing.
5. A windmill with a main windmill rotor (4) of the kind comprising a) a hub (7) with an axially protruding hub nose (20) , b) a number of wings (6) extending substantially radi¬ ally from and being rotatably supported on said hub (7) about axes in general extending radially, c) a nose stay (21) extending from the outermost part of the root (14) of each wing (6) to a part of the hub nose (20) axially spaced from the hub (7) , d) a number of intermediate stays (22) connecting the outermost parts of the roots (14) of the wings (6) with each other, and e) means (18,19) for adjusting the angle of the wings (6) relative to the wind direction (5) by turning the wings about said axes, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the main windmill rotor (4) is constructed in the manner set forth in the characterizing clause of claim 1, possibly also as indi¬ cated in one or more of the claims 2-4.
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

A WINDMILL ROTOR WITH ADJUSTABLE-PITCH BLADES, AS WELL AS WINDMILLS WITH SUCH A ROTOR

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a windmill rotor of the kind comprising a) a hub with an axially protruding hub nose, b) a number of wings extending substantially radially from and being rotatably supported on said hub about axes in general extending radially, σ) a nose stay extending from the outermost part of the root of each wing to a part of the hub nose axially spaced from the hub, d) a number of intermediate stays connecting the outer¬ most parts of the roots of the wings with each other, and e) means for adjusting the angle of the wings relative to the wind direction by turning the wings about said axes.

BACKGROUND ART

In windmill rotors of this kind, it is difficult to sup¬ port the variable-pitch wings on the rotor in a stable manner without using heavy and expensive bearing means. In many cases the wing roots are also required to exhi¬ bit a very great mechanical strength, which - of course - also increases weight and costs.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

It is the object of the present invention to remedy the disadvantages described above, and this object is attain¬ ed in a windmill rotor of the kind referred to initial¬ ly, which rotor according to the present invention is characterized in f) for each wing a bearing shaft, at its radially ou¬ termost end secured to the nose stay and the inter¬ mediate stays at the ends of said stays closest to the wing, said bearing shaft at its radially inner- most end being secured to said hub and at its outer¬ most and innermost ends respectively carrying pitch bearings, with which the outermost and the innermost part respectively of said wing root is connected.

With this arrangement, the force couples exerted on the wing roots by the force of the wind or gravity will for each wing be distributed over two bearings with a signi¬ ficant radial spacing, making the load on each bearing correspondingly less.

A first embodiment of the windmill rotor according to the present invention is characterized in that at or near its central part each intermediate stay is connect¬ ed to the hub through an arm extending substantially ra¬ dially and rigidly connected to the hub. With this ar¬ rangement, the bearing shaft mentioned above is relieved of tangential forces and couples caused by wind and gra¬ vity. A second embodiment of the windmill rotor according to the present invention is characterized in that the pitch bearings are placed in such a manner relative to each wing, that the wing turning axis (the axis of the shaft) is situated between the forward edge of the wing and the aerodynamic centre line of the wing. With this arrange¬ ment, a strong wind load will attempt to move the wings into a pitch position, in which the wind load is reduced, provided - of course - that the adjustment mechanism for the wings is adapted to accommodate such movements.

The present invention also relates to a windmill with a windmill rotor of the kind referred to initially, and according to the present invention this windmill is cha¬ racterized in that the windmill rotor exhibits at least the features set forth in the paragraph marked f) above.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In the following detailed specification the invention is explained with reference to the attached drawings, in which, Figure 1 in perspective shows a windmill with a windmill rotor according to the present' invention, Figure 2 is a partial view showing, partly in section, the hub of the windmill rotor, the innermost portion of a wing as well as the means connect- ing the wing to the hub,

Figure 3 is a partial section along the line III-III in

Fig. 2 and shows the control means for the wing in question, and Figure 4 shows roughly the same as Fig. 3, but as viewed from the front along the axis of the windmill rotor. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

The windmill or wind power generator shown in Fig. 1 in a known manner comprises a tower 1, on which a gear box 2 is supported rotatably about a vertical axis and adapt- ed to be adjusted in azimuth by means of control rotors 3, the latter in a known manner keeping the main windmill rotor 4 facing towards the wind, the direction of which is indicated by the arrow 5.

Each of the wings 6 of the main windmill rotor 4 is ro- tatably supported on a common hub 7 by means of a bearing shaft 8, the radially innermost end of which, as shown in Fig. 4, is secured to the hub 7.

As may be seen from Fig. 2 and 4, the hub 7 consists of a hub sleeve 9 keyed onto a stub shaft 10 protruding from the gear box 2, a triangular hub plate 11 situated in a radial plane and secured by welding around the hub sleeve 9, as well as three wing base plates 12 secured by wel¬ ding to the outer edges of the hub plate 11.

As will appear from Fig. 4, the inner end of the bearing shaft 8 is secured to that part of the wing base plate 12 in question lying forwardmost in the direction 13 of rotation. At the forward edge of its wing root 14 each wing 6 is rotatably supported about the bearing shaft 8 by means of outer and inner pitch bearings 15 and 16 re- spectively.

As best to be seen in Fig. 2 and 3, the inner part of the wing root 14 is surrounded by an inner wing root fit¬ ting 17, connected partly to the rotatable part of the inner pitch bearing 15, partly through a rod mechanism 18 to a pitch adjustment cylinder 19, the latter in a si¬ milar manner (not shown) also being connected to the re- maining wings 6 and adapted to adjust their angle of attach in relation to the wind.

The pitch cylinder 19 is situated in a hub nose 20, in the example shown consisting of a three-legged "tower" of T-profile steel, the broadest end of which is welded to the hub plate 11. For each of the wings 6 a nose stay 21 is secured to the forward end of the hub nose 20, said nose stay 21 extending radially outwards and rearwards to the outermost end of each bearing shaf 8, to which the nose stay is secured immediately radially within the outer pitch bearing 16.

The outermost ends of the bearing shafts 8 are intercon¬ nected by means of intermediate stays 22, each at or close to the center thereof being secured to the radially outer- most end of a radial arm 23, the radially innermost end of which is secured to the' end of the adjacent wing base pla¬ te 12 lying r.earwardmost in the direction 13 of rotation.

At this point it should be noted that the wings 6 in Fig. 1 and 2 are shown in a position substantially parallel to the wind direction 5, whereas in Fig. 4 they are shown in a position generally at right angles to this wind direc¬ tion. During normal operation, the wings will, of course, be in some angular position between these two extremes.

When during normal operation the wings 6 are acted upon by the wind 5, then that force, with which the wind at¬ tempts to bend the wings in the wind direction, i.e. to¬ wards the gear box 2, will be taken up by a force couple at each of the wing roots 14, viz. firstly an outer, rear- wardly directed force being taken up by the nose stay 21 through the outer pitch bearing 16 and the outermost end of the bearing shaft 8, the nose stay 21 being connected to the remaining two nose stays 21 through the forward- most end of the hub nose 20. The other force in the couple mentioned is constituted by a forwardly directed force from the inner wing root fitting 17, transmitted to the wing base plate 12 and hence to the hub 7 through the in- ner pitch bearing 15 and the innermost part of the bea¬ ring shaft 8. With this arrangement, the bearing shaft 8 will only be subjected to bending stresses in its outer¬ most and innermost ends, for which reason it may be rela¬ tively slim, although it must be able to withstand the "column loading" caused by the radially inwardly directed components of the tensional forces in the nose stay 21 and the two adjacent intermediate stays 22, and further, the shear forces at the two ends.

During normal operation, when the wings 6 form a suita- ble angle with the wind direction 5, the wings 6 will, of course, also be acted upon in the tangential direc¬ tion, and the force of gravity, acting upon the wings 6 in the downward direction, will additionally produce pe¬ riodically varying, substantially tangentially directed forces in each wing. The tangential forces due to gravi¬ ty are distributed between the wings through the inter¬ mediate stays 22, while the more or less constant force due to the wind is transmitted to the hub 7 and hence to the stub shaft 10 through the rotationally forwardmost part of each intermediate stay 22 and the radial arm 23 secured thereto. Thus, the radial arms 23 will relieve the bearing shafts 8 of the tangential wind forces on the wings 6, for which additional reason the bearing shafts 8 do not have to be especially strongly dimention- ed in consideration of these tangential wind forces. Also in the tangential direction force couples will arise in the same manner as in the axial direction, said force couples in the same manner as described above being taken up by the ends of the bearing shafts 8 and the bearings, stays and hub parts cooperating therewith. The inner wing root fitting 17 serves to connect the in¬ nermost end of the wing root 14 to the inner pitch bea¬ ring 15, and an outer wing root fitting 24 serves in a corresponding manner to connect the outermost end of the wing root 14 to the outer pitch bearing 16. It is here assumed that the wings are made of wood, such as laminat¬ ed wood with thick or thin laminae, but when using metal wings the wing root fittings 17 and 24 may in certain ca¬ ses be omitted, provided that the metal has the requisite strength.

Both the nose stays 21 and the intermediate stays 22 may be adjustable in length in a manner not shown.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
DE2825061A1 *8 Jun 197813 Dec 1979Maschf Augsburg Nuernberg AgWind powered generator with variable pitch blades - has swivel point of blades offset from aerodynamic centre to balance forces
DK50919A * Title not available
SE10361A * Title not available
SE34570A * Title not available
US4403916 *2 Sep 198013 Sep 1983Chicago Province Of The Society Of JesusWind turbines
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
WO2002008600A1 *28 Jun 200131 Jan 2002Stichting Energieonderzoek Centrum NederlandBlade of a wind turbine
WO2008067083A2 *23 Oct 20075 Jun 2008Ning LiaoTurbine blade assembly
WO2008067083A3 *23 Oct 20073 Jun 2010Ning LiaoTurbine blade assembly
WO2010048958A2 *27 Oct 20096 May 2010Vestas Wind Systems A/SA wind turbine generator with a back skewed rotor
WO2010048958A3 *27 Oct 200923 Dec 2010Vestas Wind Systems A/SA wind turbine generator with a back skewed rotor
WO2010048959A2 *27 Oct 20096 May 2010Vestas Wind Systems A/SA wind turbine generator with extended blade support
WO2010048959A3 *27 Oct 200923 Dec 2010Vestas Wind Systems A/SA wind turbine generator with extended blade support
WO2011124707A28 Apr 201113 Oct 2011Sway Turbine AsWind turbine rotor and wind turbine
DE102012025127A1 *21 Dec 201226 Jun 2014Voith Patent GmbhWasserkraftwerk zur Ausnutzung der Energie geführter oder freier Wasserströme
EP2112372A121 Apr 200828 Oct 2009Lm Glasfiber A/SWind turbine with blades supported on the leeward site
US691086728 Jun 200128 Jun 2005Stichting Energieonderzoek Centrum NederlandBlade of a wind turbine
US86983368 Apr 201115 Apr 2014Sway Turbine AsWind turbine rotor and wind turbine
US87297219 Oct 200920 May 2014Sway Turbine AsWind turbine rotor and wind turbine
US901703421 Apr 200928 Apr 2015Lm Glasfiber A/SUpwind wind turbine with blades supported on the leeward side
Classifications
International ClassificationF03D80/00, F03D1/06
Cooperative ClassificationF03D80/00, Y02E10/721, F03D1/0658, F05B2260/79
European ClassificationF03D11/00, F03D1/06C2
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