|Publication number||CN102834247 A|
|Application number||CN 201080064550|
|Publication date||19 Dec 2012|
|Filing date||22 Dec 2010|
|Priority date||22 Dec 2009|
|Also published as||CN102834247B, EP2338668A1, EP2516140A1, EP2516140B1, US9234500, US20120257984, WO2011076857A1|
|Publication number||201080064550.X, CN 102834247 A, CN 102834247A, CN 201080064550, CN-A-102834247, CN102834247 A, CN102834247A, CN201080064550, CN201080064550.X, PCT/2010/70510, PCT/EP/10/070510, PCT/EP/10/70510, PCT/EP/2010/070510, PCT/EP/2010/70510, PCT/EP10/070510, PCT/EP10/70510, PCT/EP10070510, PCT/EP1070510, PCT/EP2010/070510, PCT/EP2010/70510, PCT/EP2010070510, PCT/EP201070510|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (1), Classifications (16), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: SIPO, Espacenet|
制造复合壳体结构的方法 The method of manufacturing a composite shell structures
技术领域 Technical Field
 本发明涉及制造包括嵌入固化树脂（即，固化聚合物材料）中的增强纤维材料的复合壳体结构的方法。  The present invention relates to a curable resin include embedded (i.e., solidified polymeric material) housing structure of the composite of reinforcing fiber material.
 用于制造复合壳体结构的方法涉及将包括一定数目纤维层的纤维材料布置在模具中、封闭模具来形成模腔，以及固化提供在模腔中的树脂。  A method for manufacturing a composite housing structure including a fiber material involves a number of fibrous layers disposed in the mold, closing the mold to form a mold cavity, providing in the mold cavity and curing the resin. 通过将树脂注入腔体中，例如，通过树脂转移模制（resin transfer moulding, RTM)或通过真空协助的树脂转移模制(vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding, VARTM),或通过在布置于模具中时提供带有树脂的纤维材料，即通过使用预浸溃纤维材料，所谓的预浸料坯，可在封闭模具之后将树脂供给至模腔。 By injecting a resin into the cavity, for example, by resin transfer molding (resin transfer moulding, RTM) or by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding, VARTM), or by arrangement in the mold when providing the fibrous material with resin, i.e. prepreg collapse by using a fiber material, a so-called prepreg, the mold can be closed after the resin is supplied to the cavity.  尤其是对于大型壳体结构，如用于船体和用于风カ涡轮机叶片的壳体，相比于用于在使用RTM/VARTM时注入/浸溃和固化树脂和在使用预浸料坯时加热和固化树脂的时间，用于将纤维材料布置在模具中的时间相当多。  In particular for large housing structure, such as used in the hull and a wind turbine blade housing grades, compared to injection / impregnated and cured resin and the when using the RTM / VARTM use prepreg preform heating and curing the resin time, time for the fibrous material arranged in the mold considerable.
 从US 4，992，228和US 5，080, 851知道了形成纤维材料的预制件和将该预制件转  From US 4,992,228 and US 5,080, 851 knows the formation of fibrous material preform and the preform transfer
移至在其中形成复合结构的模具中。 Moved to form a mold in which the composite structure.
 W089/05717公开了ー种将塑料材料和增强纤维的混合物施加至半型的模具表面上的方法，所述方法包括以下步骤：例如通过喷洒将结合纤维的液体塑料混合物置于预制件成形件上，预制件成形件的形状与半型的模具表面互补，在模具表面上下倒转的情况下将半型置于预制件成形件上，共同地翻转预制件成形件和半型，以便使半型位于预制件成形件的下方，且然后除去预制件成形件。  W089 / 05717 discloses a seed mixture ー plastic material and reinforcing fibers applied to the methods of the semi-type mold surface, the method comprising the steps of: for example, by spraying the binding liquid plastic mixture into a preform of fibers the forming member, forming member preform and semi-type shape complementary to the mold surface, the mold surface in the case of the upper half of the vertical-type inverted preforms disposed forming member, collectively forming member and the preform inverted halves, so that Semi type located beneath the preform molding pieces, and then removing the preform forming member.
 EP0271263公开了ー种借助于转移工具将预浸溃纤维增强材料板转移至模具的方法，该转移工具设有挠性可充胀隔膜，且具有定形为符合模具的表面的形状的表面。  EP0271263 discloses a transfer tool by means of a kind ー crushed fiber reinforced prepreg material to the mold transfer plate method, the transfer tool has a flexible inflatable membrane, and having a mold shaped to conform to the surface shape of the surface .
 W02007/039085公开了ー种将材料层如预浸料坯层置于模具中的方法，且该方法包括以下步骤：将能弹性可逆地变形的本体的表面压靠材料层、产生暂时地将材料层固定到表面上的保持力，以及借助于该本体将材料层布置在模具中。  W02007 / 039085 discloses a layer of material such as seed ー prepreg layer placed in the mold in the method, and the method comprising the steps of: surface reversibly elastically deformable body is pressed against the material layer, resulting in a temporary to the material layer is fixed to the holding force on the surface, and by means of which the bulk material layer is disposed in the mold.
 EP O 577 505 Al公开了ー种装备，该装备用于拾取预切纤维层（如预浸料坯）将纤维层定形为预制件，以及将预制件转移至模制工具。  EP O 577 505 Al discloses ー kinds of equipment, the equipment for picking up pre-cut fiber layer (prepreg) is shaped fiber preform layer, and transferring the preform to a molding tool.
 本发明的目的在于获得制造复合壳体结构的新方法，且该方法尤其适用于制造大型复合壳体结构，如船体和用于风カ涡轮机叶片的壳件。  The object of the present invention is a new method for producing a composite shell structure is obtained, and the method is particularly suitable for the manufacture of large composite shell structures, such as the hull and grades for a wind turbine blade shell member.
 根据本发明，这通过包括以下步骤的方法达到：  According to the present invention, this is achieved by a method comprising the following steps to achieve:
A提供第一模具件，其具有优选为实质上凹入的模具件模制表面，该表面带有限定复合壳体结构的外表面的轮廓； A providing a first mold member, preferably having a substantially concave mold member molding surface which defines with the outer surface contour of the composite structure of the casing;
B提供预制件成形件，其具有优选为实质上凸出的且实质上面向上方的表面，该表面定形为与模具件模制表面的至少一部分基本上互补； B provides preform forming member, preferably having a substantially convex surface facing and substantially above the surface shaped to at least a portion of the mold member molding surface substantially complementary;
C通过将包括一定数目的纤维层的纤维材料布置在预制件成形表面上来形成预制件；D将第一模具件和预制件成形件合至组装位置，以便模具件模制表面面对预制件成形表面，且腔体限定在所述表面之间，且实质上容纳布置在预制件成形表面上的纤维材料； C by a number of fibrous layers comprising a fibrous preform molding material is disposed onto the surface of the preform is formed; D first mold member and the forming member bonded to the preform assembly position, so that the mold member molding surface facing the preform molding surface, and the cavity defined between the surface and disposed substantially accommodated in the fibrous material on the preform molding surface;
E通过从预制件成形表面释放纤维材料来将预制件转移至第一模具件，以便使预制件收纳在第一模具件的模制表面上； E by forming the preform from the surface of the fiber material to release the preform transferred to the first mold member, so that the preform is housed in the molding surface of the first mold member;
F从第一模具件除去预制件成形件； F preform removed from the first mold part forming member;
G借助于布置在纤维材料的顶上的第二模具件来形成模腔， G by means of a fiber material arranged on top of the second mold member to form a mold cavity,
H固化和/或允许树脂固化，以及 H cure and / or allow the resin is cured, and
其中将树脂当在步骤C中将纤维材料布置在预制件成形表面上时预先供给或供给至·纤维材料或在步骤G之后供给至模腔。 Wherein the resin in step C, when arranged in the fiber preform molding material is supplied in advance or on the surface and fiber material supplied to or supplied to the cavity after step G.
 通过在单独的预制件成形件中形成纤维材料的预制件且然后将预制件转移至第ー模具件，相比于纤维材料的放置也出现在模具中的公知方法，就可显著地缩短所谓的成形时间，即，占用模具来用于制造单个复合壳体结构期间的时间。  The fibrous material preform formed in a separate member forming the preform and the preform is then transferred to the first mold member ー, compared to the fibrous material there is placed in a mold known methods, it can be significantly The so-called molding time shortened, namely, take the time for mold to manufacture a single composite shell structure period. 換言之，由于在相同时间能在模具中进行模制井能在预制件成形件中制备新预制件，所以可缩短制造时间。 In other words, since the new preform can be prepared in the preform molding member can be molded in the mold well at the same time, it is possible to shorten the manufacturing time. 这在制造大型壳体结构时尤其有利，因为用于布置纤维材料的时间比模制时间长，模制时间即在使用RTM/VARTM时用于注入/浸溃树脂和固化树脂的时间和使用预浸料坯时用于加热且因而液化树脂和固化树脂的时间。 This is in the manufacture of large-scale housing construction is particularly advantageous, because the time for arranging the fiber material is longer than the molding time and molding time that the use of RTM / VARTM for injection / impregnated resin and curing time of the resin and the use of pre- When the prepreg and the time for heating and liquefied resin and curing the resin.
 该方法特别适用于形成具有凸出外表面的壳体结构，如用于船体的壳体和用于风カ涡轮机的壳体。  The process is particularly suitable for forming an outer surface of the housing having a convex structure, such as a housing for the hull and grades for a wind turbine housing. 在公知的方法中，将纤维垫形式的纤维材料放置在第一模具件的凹入表面上。 In the known method, the fibrous mat in the form of fiber material is placed on the concave surface of the first mold member. 然而，在放置期间，纤维垫趋于在模具表面上在其陡峭地倾斜的区域中滑动，由此在ー些部分中形成皱褶，而在放置纤维材料的其他部分缺失纤维材料。 However, during placement, the fiber mat tends to steeply inclined, in its region sliding on the mold surface, thereby forming wrinkles ー those portions, while the other portion is placed in the absence of the fibrous material of the fibrous material. 为了避免此问题，必须采取用以将纤维材料保持在预计位置上的措施。 To avoid this problem, measures must be taken to keep the fiber material in the expected position. 此种措施很耗时，且增加了制造时间。 Such measures are time-consuming, and increases the manufacturing time. 通过将纤维材料放置于具有凸出的预制件成形表面的预制件成形件上，就可减小或消除纤维垫滑动和皱褶的问题。 By placing the fiber material in the preform having a convex shaped upper surface of the preform forming member, the fiber mat can reduce or eliminate the problem of sliding and wrinkles.
 纤维材料可包括玻璃纤维、碳纤维、聚合物纤维、植物纤维、金属纤维、如钢纤維，以及所述纤维的组合。  The fibrous material may comprise glass fibers, carbon fibers, polymeric fibers, plant fibers, metal fibers such as steel fibers, and combinations of said fibers.
 纤维材料可仅包括干纤维材料。  fibrous material may include only dry fibrous material.
 根据本方法的实施例，纤维材料包括树脂浸溃材料，即，所谓的预浸料坯材料。  According to an embodiment of the method, the fibrous material comprising a resin impregnated material, i.e., a so-called prepreg material.
 纤维材料可仅包括预浸料坯材料。  Fiber materials may include only a prepreg material. 然而，还有可能在预制件中使用干纤维材料和预浸料坯纤维材料及注入或灌注附加的树脂到模腔中。 However, there may be a dry fiber preform material and prepreg fiber material and additional resin injection or infusion into the mold cavity.
 在预浸料坯模制中，用预先催化的树脂预浸溃增强纤维。  In molding the prepreg, a pre-catalysed resin impregnated reinforcing fibers collapse. 树脂在室温下通常为固体或接近固体。 At room temperature, the resin is typically solid or nearly solid. 将提供在模腔中的预浸料坯材料加热至一定温度，在该温度下，允许树脂流动，且在浸溃纤维材料之后固化树脂。 Will be provided in the cavity of the prepreg material is heated to a certain temperature, at which temperature, allowing the resin to flow and after curing the resin impregnated fibrous material. 在预浸料坯方法的改进版本中，纤维材料设有未催化的树脂，且将包含催化剂的树脂供给至模腔。 In the modified version of the method of the prepreg, a fibrous material with uncatalyzed resin, and a catalyst comprising a resin supplied to the mold cavity.
 在本发明的另ー实施例中，将树脂供给至模腔。  In another embodiment of the present invention ー, resin is supplied to the mold cavity.
 当使用预浸料坯和/或将树脂供给至预制件成形表面时，可能需要在随后的预制件的成形之间清洁所述表面，以便防止树脂在预制件成形表面上固化。  When using the prepreg and / or when the resin is supplied to the preform molding surface, you might need to clean the surface between the subsequent preform molding to prevent the cured resin in preform forming on the surface. 通过仅使用干纤维材料和仅将树脂供给至模腔，即，未将树脂供给至预制件成形件，就消除了清洁预制件成形表面的需要。 By using only the dry fiber material and only the resin is supplied to the cavity, that is, not the resin is supplied to preform formed parts, eliminating the preform molding surface cleaning needs.
 如前文所述，可通过VARTM供给树脂，由此将液体树脂供给至设有预制件的模腔中，且其中在模腔中生成真空，因而吸入聚合物。  As mentioned above, by supplying VARTM resin, whereby the liquid resin is supplied to the cavity is provided in the preform, and wherein the vacuum generated in the mold cavity, so that the suction polymers. 通过生成通常是80%至95%的模腔中的总真空，将液体聚合物吸入和填充带有纤维材料的模腔。 Usually by generating 80 to 95% of the total vacuum in the mold cavity, the liquid polymer to fill the cavity with suction and the fibrous material.
 RTM类似于VARTM。  RTM similar VARTM. 然而，液体树脂不会由于模腔中生成的真空而被吸入模腔中。 However, since the liquid resin is not generated in the mold cavity and a vacuum is drawn in the mold cavity. 作为替代，借助于超压来迫使液体树脂进入模腔中。 As an alternative, by means of over-pressure to force the liquid resin into the mold cavity.
 不论使用什么模制方法，树脂都可为热固性树脂，如环氧树脂、こ烯基酯和聚酷。  Regardless of what molding process, the resin can be a thermosetting resin, such as epoxy resins, vinyl ester and a poly ko cool. 树脂还可为热塑性塑料，如PA、PVC、ABS、PP或PE。 It may also be a thermoplastic resin, such as PA, PVC, ABS, PP or PE. 此外，树脂可为现场可聚合的热塑性材料。 Further, the resin may be a thermoplastic polymeric material field.
 现场可聚合的热塑性材料可有利地选自以下的预聚物构成的集合：聚对苯ニ甲酸 The thermoplastic material  Field polymerizable be advantageously selected from the set consisting of the following prepolymers: polyparaphenylene ni acid
丁ニ醇酯（PBT)、聚酰胺_6 (预聚物为己内酰胺）、聚酰胺_12(预聚物为十二内酰胺），聚酰胺-6和聚酰胺-12的混合物；聚氨基甲酸酯（TPU)、聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯（PMMA)、聚对苯ニ甲酸こニ醇酯（PET)、聚碳酸酯（PC)、聚醚醚酮（PEEK)、聚醚酮（PEK)、聚醚砜（PES)、聚苯硫醚（PPS)、聚萘ニ甲酸こニ酯（PEN)、聚丁烯萘亚甲基酯（PBN)、环状对苯ニ甲酸丁ニ醇酯(CBT)和/或它们的组合。 Ni butyl ester (PBT), polyamide _6 (prepolymer of caprolactam), polyamide _12 mixture (prepolymer laurolactam), polyamide-6 and polyamide-12; polyurethanes ester (TPU), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate ni ni ko acid ester (PET), polycarbonate (PC), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyetherketone (PEK) , polyether sulfone (PES), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene naphthalate ni ni ko acid ester (PEN), polybutylene naphthalate (PBN), cyclic terephthalic acid ni ni butyl ester ( CBT) or a combination thereof, and /.
 现场可聚合的热塑性材料具有的优点在于其在其预聚物状态下可作为液体、粉末或颗粒进行处理。 The thermoplastic material  Field polymerizable has the advantage in that it in its state as a liquid prepolymer, a powder or granules treated. 因此，材料可用于预浸溃纤维材料，即，在预浸料坯中。 Therefore, the material can be used to break down fiber prepreg material, that is, the prepreg. 作为备选，材料可以以粉末形式喷洒到纤维材料上，或作为分隔层布置在模具件中。 Alternatively, the material can be sprayed in powder form to the fibrous material, or as a separate layer is disposed in the mold member.
 现场可聚合的热塑性材料(如CBT)具有的优点在于，它们在加热至大约150摄氏度的温度时获得类似于水的粘性。 The thermoplastic material  Field polymerizable (e.g. CBT) have the advantage that they obtain a viscosity similar to water when heated to a temperature of about 150 degrees Celsius. 因此，有可能很快地浸溃将模制的很大复合结构的纤维材料，且随后在很短的循环时间中固化树脂。 Therefore, it may soon be impregnated fiber material molded large composite structures, and then in a very short cycle times in the cured resin.
 CTB可用作单一部分体系，其中将催化剂预混合至树脂中，且其中例如通过加热来活化催化剂，且可用作两部分体系，其中単独地保存催化剂和树脂，直到刚好在使用之前，此时将它们混合和供给至模腔。  CTB can be used as part of a single system, wherein the catalyst is pre-mixed to the resin, and for example wherein the catalyst is activated by heating, and used as a two-part system, wherein the radiolabeling catalyst and resin alone preserved until just before use In this case they are mixed and supplied to the mold cavity.
 在一些情形中，可能有利的是将附加的现场可聚合的热塑性材料供给至模腔中，以便浸溃全部纤维材料。  In some instances, it may be advantageous to attach the thermoplastic material is supplied to the field polymerizable mold cavity, so that all the impregnated fibrous material. 在此种情形中，可能有利的是使用单一部分体系来用于预先供给的树脂，以及使用两部分体系来用于附加的树脂。 In such cases, it may be advantageous to use a single-part system for supplying a resin in advance, and the use of an additional two-part resin system to be used.
 用语可聚合的热塑性材料意思是材料一旦处于制造地点就可聚合。  The term thermoplastic polymeric material can mean material Once in the place of manufacture can be polymerized.
 根据有利的实施例，模腔被抽空。  According to an advantageous embodiment, the cavity is evacuated. 此外，在使用除VARTM之外的其他模制方法吋，有利的是抽空模腔，因为由此消除或减小完成的复合结构中携帯空气或气体的风险。 Further, in addition to using other molding methods VARTM inch, advantageously cavity is evacuated, since thereby eliminating or reducing the risk of the composite structure in the completed carry Bands air or gas.
 根据另ー实施例，第二模具件为由挠性材料形成挠性模具件，挠性材料优选为聚合物膜。  According to another ー embodiment, the second mold member by a flexible mold member formed of a flexible material, the flexible material is preferably a polymer film. 通过使用也称为真空袋的挠性聚合物膜作为第二模具件且抽空模腔，有可能获得所期望的“纤维对树脂”的比率，因为施加的真空造成使聚合物膜压靠纤维材料。 Flexible polymeric film by using a vacuum bag is also known as a second mold part and the mold cavity is evacuated, it is possible to obtain a desired "fiber resin" ratio, because a vacuum is applied to the resulting polymer film is pressed against the fiber material .
 根据本发明的实施例，在步骤C之前，将挠性模具件布置在预制件成形表面上。  According to an embodiment of the present invention, prior to step C, the flexible member is disposed in the preform mold forming surface. 换言之，在放置纤维材料之前将挠性模具件布置在预制件成形件的预制件成形表面上，且随后与成形的预制件一起转移至第一模具件。 In other words, prior to placing the fiber material in the flexible member is disposed in the preform mold preform forming member forming surface, and then transferred along with the preform molding to the first mold member.
 预制件成形件的预制件成形表面可定形为与第一模具件的整个模具表面基本上互补。 Preform  The preform molding member may be shaped to the shaping surface of the first mold member is substantially complementary to the entire mold surface. 然而，还有可能在将预制件转移至第一模具件之前和/或之后将附加纤维材料布置在第一模具件中。 However, it is also possible before transferring the preform to a first mold part and / or after the additional fiber material is arranged in the first mold member.  此外，两个或多个单独的子预制件可形成在单独的子预制件成形件上，子预制件成形件具有预制件成形表面，该表面定形为与模具件模制表面的部分或区段实质上互补，此后，将单独地成形的子预制件转移至第一模具件模制表面的相应部分或区段。  In addition, two or more separate sub-preform may be formed on a separate sub-preform molding parts, sub-preform molding and mold parts molded surface portion having a preform molding surface which is shaped to or substantially complementary segments, sub preform Thereafter, the molded separately transferred to the corresponding portions or segments of the first mold member molding surface.
 根据另ー实施例，在步骤C中，将芯材、如轻木或泡沫芯材加至纤维材料中且因而加至预制件中。  According to another ー embodiment, in step C, the core material, such as balsa wood or foam core is added to the fibrous material and thus added to the preform. 有利的是将芯材布置在纤维层之间。 Advantageously, the core material is disposed between the fiber layers. 例如，可通过缝纫、縫合或粘合来将芯材附接到纤维层上，以便将芯材保持在所期望的位置。 For example, by sewing, stitching or adhering to the core material attached to the fiber layer, in order to keep the core material in the desired position.
 在实施例中，在步骤C之后，将ー个或多个聚合物箔布置在预制件的顶上，以便在至少ー个聚合物箔与预制件成形表面之间形成腔体。  In an embodiment, after step C, the one or more polymeric foils ー disposed on top of the preform in order to form a cavity in the at least one polymer ー foil formed between the surface and the preform. 可抽空至少ー个聚合物箔与预制件成形表面之间的腔体，以便在步骤D期间将预制件保持在预制件成形表面上。 Can be evacuated and at least ー a polymer foil preform molding cavity between the surfaces, so that during step D in the preform held in the preform forming surface.
 预制件成形件可设有用于提供上述抽空的抽吸器件。  preform mold the evacuation of the suction device may be provided for supplying parts.
 聚合物箔优选为挠性箔，且由与树脂相容的材料制成，且在树脂固化期间熔化或溶解。  The polymer foil is preferably a foil is flexible, and made of a material compatible with the resin, and the resin is cured during melting or dissolution.
 聚合物箔还可形成完成的复合壳体结构的外表面。  the outer surface of the polymer foil can also be completed composite shell structure is formed.
 根据另ー实施例，纤维层在步骤C中例如通过缝纫、縫合或粘合(例如，通过使用粘性成分）而附接到彼此上，以便由此将纤维层保持在所期望的位置上。  According to another ー embodiment, fibrous layers in step C, for example by sewing, stitching or bonding (e.g., by using a viscous component) and attached to each other, so that the fiber layer is thereby maintained at the desired position on.
 此外，在步骤C中，可将粘合材料如液体粘性粘合剂或粉末粘合剂施加到纤维材料上来硬化预制件。  Further, in step C, the adhesive material may be a liquid such as a tacky adhesive or an adhesive is applied to the powder onto the fibrous material cured preform.
 根据另ー实施例，通过将第一模具件移到与预制件成形件的组装位置且然后将第一模具件和预制件成形件上下倒转来执行步骤D。  According to another embodiment ー, by moving the first mold member and the preform forming member and then assembled position of the first mold member and the preform forming member upside down to perform the step D.
 根据另ー实施例，通过翻转预制件成形件且将其移到与第一模具件的组装位置，同时将预制件保持在预制件成形件中来执行步骤D。  According to another embodiment ー, parts and their assembly position to the first mold member while holding the preform in the preform molding member is performed by turning the preform molding step D.
 可通过将聚合物箔布置在预制件顶上来将预制件保持在预制件成形件中，以便在聚合物箔与预制件成形表面之间形成腔体，且抽空所述腔体。  The polymer foil can be disposed on top of the preform in the preform to remain in the preform molding member to form a cavity in the preform forming polymer between the foil and the surface, and evacuating said cavity. 然后，可通过释放真空来执行步骤E。 Then, the steps may be performed by releasing the vacuum E.
 如果在将纤维材料布置在预制件成形表面上之前将聚合物膜（即，真空袋)设在预制件成形表面上，可按以下执行步骤D、步骤E或步骤F ：  If, before the fibrous preform molding material is disposed on the surface of the polymer film (ie, vacuum) provided on the preform molding surface, according to the following execution procedure D, E or steps Step F:
步骤D :使第一模具件移到与预制件成形件的组装位置， Step D: the first mold member to move the position of the preform molding assembly member,
步骤E :抽空形成在聚合物膜与第一模具件之间的腔体，以便将预制件和聚合物膜转移至第一模具件，以及 Step E: evacuating a cavity is formed between the polymer film and the first mold member, so that the preform and the polymer film was transferred to the first mold member, and
步骤F :将第一模具件从预制件部分的预制件成形表面卸下。 Step F: The first mold member shaping surface portion of the preform is removed from the preform.
 在第一模具件处于预制件面向下的位置和第一模具件翻转180°且预制件面向上的位置，或第一模具件的任何其他位置的情况下，可发生树脂的供给和固化。  In the preform downwardly facing position and a first mold part and 180 ° in the position facing the preform, or any other position of the first mold member in the case of the first mold member, and the resin supply can occur cured.
 可通过使用分别形成叶片的压力侧和吸力侧的两个单独地制造的壳件来制造风カ涡轮机叶片，随后将所述壳件胶合在一起。  The housing member may be formed both pressure side and suction side of the vane manufactured separately produced by using the wind turbine blade ka, then glued together said housing member.
 本发明可用于形成各个所述壳件。  The present invention may be used to form each of the shell member. 因此，通过根据本发明的方法制造的风カ涡轮机叶片在保护范围内。 Therefore, by the production method according to the present invention, the wind turbine blade ka within the scope of protection. 壳件可具有至少30m的长度，作为备选至少40m的长度，作为备选至少50m的长度。 Shell member may have a length of at least 30m, 40m in length, at least as an alternative, as an alternative, at least 50m length.
 然而，本发明还可用于借助于所谓的封闭中空模制来按下述成整块地制造风カ涡轮机叶片：-通过执行步骤A — F来提供用于形成叶片的压カ侧的第一预制件；  However, the present invention can also be used in so-called closed by means of a hollow molded into the piece to be manufactured according to the following grades of wind turbine blades: - A by performing steps - F is provided for forming a side of the blade pressure ka a first preform;
-通过执行步骤A — F通过使用附加的模具件及附加的预制件成形件来提供用于形成叶片的吸力侧的附加预制件，该附加的模具件具有带有限定叶片的吸力侧的外表面的轮廓的模具件模制表面，该附加的预制件成形件具有定形为与附加模具件模制表面实质上互补的预制件成形表面； - A by performing steps - F to provide additional preform for forming a suction side of the blade by the use of additional mold parts and additional member forming the preform, the additional mold defining member having an outer surface with a suction side of the blade mold member molding surface profile, the additional shaped article having a shaped preform of the additional mold member molding surface shaped substantially complementary to the surface of the preform;
-合起且组装两个成形的预制件，同时保持在其相应模具件中，以便由此形成中空预制件，该中空预制件具有限定中空内部的内表面且由外封闭模具包绕，外封闭模具由第一模具件和附加模具件形成，且其中通过将至少ー个聚合物膜（即，真空袋）布置在中空预制件的内表面上来形成模腔； - Taken together and the assembly of two molded preform, while maintaining in its respective mold member, to thereby form a hollow preform, the hollow preform having an inner surface defining a hollow interior and is surrounded by an outer closed mold, the outer closure a mold formed by a first mold member and the additional mold part, and wherein the at least one by ー polymer film (i.e., vacuum) disposed on the inner surface of the hollow preform onto the cavity is formed;
-抽空模腔； - Evacuated cavity;
-固化树脂和/或允许树脂固化，以及其中将树脂当在步骤C中将纤维材料布置在预制件成形表面上时预先供给或供给至纤维材料或在步骤G之后供给至模腔。 - Curing resin and / or a resin cured allowed, and wherein when the resin is pre-fed or supplied to a fiber or material supplied to the die cavity after step G in Step C in the fibrous material is disposed on the surface of the molded preform.
 因此，本发明的范围还涵盖借助于封闭中空模制通过根据本发明的方法制造的风力涡轮机叶片。  Accordingly, the scope of the present invention also encompasses closed by means of a hollow molded by the production method according to the present invention, a wind turbine blade.
附图说明 Brief Description
 下文參照附图中所示的实施例详细阐述了本发明，在附图中：  below with reference to embodiments shown in the accompanying drawings illustrate the invention in detail, in the drawings:
图I为包括分别形成叶片的压力侧和吸力侧且沿叶片的弦平面胶合在一起的两个壳件的风カ涡轮机叶片的示意图， Figure I is formed comprising the blade suction side and pressure side and glued along a chord plane of the blade members together two shells schematic ka wind turbine blades,
图2为用于形成叶片的压力侧壳件的第一模具件的截面示意图， Figure 2 is a cross section for forming the blade pressure side of the first mold member schematic casing member,
图3为用于形成纤维材料的预制件的预制件成形件的截面示意图，在图3中也显示成形的预制件， Figure 3 is a fibrous material used to form the preform cross-sectional schematic view of a preform shaped member, shaped preform also shown in Figure 3,
图4为ー个步骤的截面示意图，在该步骤中，第一模具件上下倒转，且与预制件成形件一起被合至组装位置， Figure 4 is a schematic sectional view ー steps, in this step, the first mold member upside down, and the preform forming member is bonded to the assembled together position,
图5为ー个步骤的截面示意图，在该步骤中，将预制件转移至第一模具件，且从第一模具件除去预制件成形件， Figure 5 is a schematic sectional view ー steps, in this step, the preform is transferred to the first mold member, forming member and the preform is removed from the first mold member,
图6为对应于图5中所示的截面示意图，然而第一模具件和转移至第一模具件的预制件在所谓的封闭中空模制中使用，其中成整块地制造风カ涡轮机叶片， Figure 6 is a schematic sectional view corresponding to FIG. 5 shown in, but transferred to the first mold member and first mold member preform in so-called closed hollow mold used, which grades into an integral mass produced wind turbine blades,
图7为附加的预制件成形件的截面示意图，在其预制件成形表面上形成附加预制件，所述预制件成形表面定形为与带有限定叶片的吸力侧的轮廓的附加模具件模制表面实质上互补， Figure 7 is an additional schematic cross section of the preform molding parts, additional preform is formed on the surface of its molded preform, the preform molding surface shaped to the additional mold part molded surface contour defined with the suction side of the blade substantially complementary,
图8为附加模具件的截面示意图，附加预制件转移至附加模具件的模制表面，以及图9为ー个步骤的截面示意图，在该步骤中，图8中所示的附加模具件上下倒转，同时将附加预制件保持于其中，且与图6中所示的第一模具件和预制件合到一起，以便形成由第一模具件和附加模具件形成的外封闭模具包绕的中空预制件。 Figure 8 is a schematic sectional view of an additional mold parts, the preform is transferred to the additional member molding die attach surface, and FIG. 9 is a schematic cross-sectional ー step, in this step, the additional mold part shown in FIG. 8 upside down , while the additional preform held therein, and with the view of the first mold member and the preform 6 shown combined together to form a first mold member and the additional outer mold member is formed a closed hollow mold surrounding the preform member.
具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION
 图I为风カ涡轮机叶片I的示意图，风カ涡轮机叶片I具有常规涡轮叶片的形状，且包括根区2、轮廓区或翼型区3，以及根区2与翼型区3之间的过渡区4。  FIG. I is a schematic view of wind turbine blades grades I, the wind turbine blade ka I have the shape of a conventional turbine blade, and including the root zone 2, zone or airfoil contour area 3 and the root zone 2 and zone 3 of the airfoil the transition zone between the 4. 叶片I包括前缘5和后缘6。 I blade 5 comprises a leading edge and a trailing edge 6. 弦平面7在前缘5与后缘6之间延伸，限定叶片的吸カ侧8与压カ侧9之间的过渡部。 Chord plane 7 between the leading edge and the trailing edge 6 extends 5, defining the blade suction side 8 and the pressure ka ka transition between the side section 9. 借助于点划线示出了弦平面。 By means of a dotted line shows the chord plane. 如上文所述，可通过使用两个单独地制造的壳件来制造叶片1，即，叶片的压力侧壳件和吸カ侧壳件，且随后将两个壳件胶合在一起。 As described above, by using two separately manufactured housing parts manufactured blade 1, i.e., the blade pressure side and the suction casing member ka side casing member, and subsequently glued together the two casing members. 作为备选，叶片可制造为单件。 Alternatively, the blades may be manufactured as a single piece.
 如下文将阐述的那样，根据本发明的方法可用于制造叶片的单独壳件，或用于将叶片制造为单件。  As will be set forth above, according to the method of the present invention can be used to make a separate blade shell member, or for the manufacture of the blade in one piece.
 现在将借助于用于制造由胶合在一起的两个单独地制造的壳件制成的叶片的压力侧壳件的实施例来阐述本发明。  Example embodiments will now be manufactured by means of two blade shell member formed separately manufactured by gluing together the pressure side of the casing member for to illustrate the present invention.
 图2公开了ー种用于制造叶片的压力侧壳件的第一模具件10。  Figure 2 discloses a first mold member 10 for producing seed ー pressure side of the blade shell member. 第一模具件10包括带有一定轮廓的模具件模制表面11，该轮廓实质上限定叶片I的压カ侧9的外表面。 10 comprises a first mold member having contoured molding surface of the mold member 11, which substantially defines the outer contour of the pressure surface of the blade I ka side 9.
 图3为穿过具有实质上凸出的且实质上面向上的预制件成形表面13的预制件成·形件12的截面视图。  Figure 3 is through and substantially having a substantially convex face of the preform into a shaped preform ·-shaped member 13 of a cross-sectional view of the surface 12. 预制件成形表面13定形为与第一模具件10的第一模具件模制表面11实质上互补。 Preform 13 shaped to the shaping surface of the first mold member molding surface 10 of the first mold member 11 is substantially complementary. 通过在预制件成形件12上布置纤维层和芯材部分来形成预制件14，将纤维层和芯材部分包括在风カ涡轮机叶片的完成的壳件中。 By preform forming member 12 is disposed on the fiber layer and the core portion 14 to form the preform, the fiber layer and the core portion comprises a housing member in the wind turbine blade grades of finished. 下纤维层15布置在预制件成形表面13上。 Lower fibrous layer 15 is disposed on the surface of the molded preform 13. 为了提供所谓的主叠层16，在预制件成形件12的上部区域在下纤维层15上布置多个纤维层。 In order to provide a so-called master stack 16, in the upper region of the preform 12 forming a plurality of fiber layers are arranged on the lower fiber layer 15. 此外，在分别对应于要形成的叶片壳件的相应前缘和后缘区域的区域在下纤维层15上布置多个纤维层，以便分别提供前缘纤维增强部17和后缘纤维增强部18。 In addition, in the region corresponding to the region of the leading edge and trailing edge of the blade shell member to be formed respectively corresponding to a plurality of fiber layers are arranged on the lower fibrous layer 15, respectively, so as to provide a fiber-reinforced leading edge and the trailing edge portion 17 of fiber reinforced portion 18. 在主叠层16与前缘纤维增强部17之间布置第一芯材料19，并在主叠层16与后缘纤维增强部18之间布置第二芯材料20。 Between the main stack 16 and the leading edge portion 17 is disposed a first fiber-reinforced core material 19, and between the main stack 16 and the rear edge portion 18 is disposed a second fiber-reinforced core material 20. 在主叠层16、前缘纤维增强部17、后缘纤维增强部18、第一芯材料19和第二芯材料20的顶上布置一个或多个上纤维层。 In the main stack 16, the leading edge portion 17 a fiber-reinforced, fiber-reinforced trailing edge portions 18, 19 of the first core material and the second core material 20 is disposed on top of the one or more fiber layers.
 如图3中所示，现在形成了预制件14。  As shown in Figure 3, the preform 14 is now formed. 应当注意的是，在一些实施例中，可省略形成主叠层16的多个纤维层和/或形成前缘纤维增强部17和/或后缘纤维增强部18的纤维层，且也可省略第一芯材料19和第二芯材料20。 It should be noted that in some embodiments, may be omitted forming a main stack 16 of a plurality of fiber layers and / or fiber-reinforced portion forming the leading edge 17 and / or the trailing edge portion of the fiber-reinforced fiber layer 18, and may be omitted The first core material 19 and the second core material 20.
 如图4中所示，然后通过将第一模具件10上下倒转来将第一模具件10和预制件成形件12合到组装位置，以便第一模具件模制表面11面对预制件成形表面13，且在所述表面之间限定腔体。  As shown in Figure 4, and then through the first mold member 10 upside down to the first mold member 10 and the molded preform member 12 bonded to the assembled position, so that the first mold part 11 facing the molding surface of the preform Forming surface 13, and between the surface of the cavity is defined. 腔体的形状和尺寸实质上对应于布置在预制件成形件12的预制件成形表面13上的纤维材料的形状和尺寸，以便实质上容纳预制件14。 The shape and dimensions of the cavity is disposed substantially corresponds to the preform in the preform molding member 12 forming the shape and dimensions of the fibrous material 13 on the surface, in order to accommodate the preform 14 substantially.
 然后，通过从预制件成形表面13释放包括纤维材料的预制件14来将预制件14转移至第一模具件10，使得将预制件14收纳在模具件的模制表面11上。  Then, by releasing the preform from the forming surface 13 comprises a fibrous material 14 of the preform 14 will be transferred to the preform to the first mold member 10, such that the preform 14 housed in the molding surface of the mold member 11. 在本实施例中，这通过将第一模具件10和预制件成形件12上下倒转来执行，且随后从第一模具件10除去预制件成形件12。 In the present embodiment, this is accomplished by the first mold member 10 and the preform forming member 12 upside down to perform, and then removed from the first mold member 10 molded preform member 12. 如图5中所示，由此将预制件14转移至第一模具件模制表面11。 Shown in Figure 5, thereby transferring the preform 14 to the first mold member molding surface 11.
 如果布置在预制件成形件12的预制件成形表面13上的纤维材料为浸溃有树脂的预浸溃材料，则可通过将真空袋布置在下纤维层15的顶上来执行纤维材料的浸溃，现在下纤维层15为预制件14的上纤维层，从而将真空袋密封至第一模具件10，在真空袋与第一模具件模制表面11之间形成的腔体中提供真空，加热预浸溃树脂，以便液化树脂且树脂浸溃纤维材料，且树脂随后固化来形成壳件，在本实施例中是风カ涡轮机叶片的压カ侧壳件。  If disposed in the preform molding preform molding surface 12 of the fibrous material 13 is impregnated have crushed material prepreg resin can be arranged through the vacuum bag on top of the lower fiber layer 15 to perform the fibrous material dipping, now lower fibrous layer 15 on the fibrous layer of the preform 14, thereby sealing the vacuum bag 10 to the first mold member, providing a vacuum in the vacuum bag and the first mold part a mold cavity is formed between the surface 11 heated prepreg resin collapse to liquefy the resin and the resin impregnated fibrous material, and the resin is then cured to form the shell member, in this embodiment, the pressure is ka ka side wind turbine blade shell member.
 作为备选，当使用VARTM来形成壳件时，将真空袋布置在预制件14的顶上，且将真空袋密封至第一模具件10，以便形成模腔。  Alternatively, when used to form the shell member VARTM, the vacuum bag 14 is disposed on top of the preform, and the vacuum bag sealed to the first mold member 10 to form a mold cavity. 然后，抽空模腔，且借助于提供的真空供给树脂至模腔，以便浸溃预制件14的纤维材料。 Then, taking the mold cavity, and by providing a vacuum supply resin to the mold cavity to preform impregnated fiber material 14. 预制件14的纤维材料可为干纤维材料或干纤维材料和浸溃有与VARTM期间灌注的树脂相容的树脂的预浸溃纤维材料的组合。 Preform fiber material 14 may be a dry fiber material or dry fibrous material and impregnated there with perfusion during VARTM resin compatible resin prepreg collapse combination fibrous material.
 下文中阐述了使用根据本发明的方法来借助于所谓封闭中空模制成整块地制造风カ涡轮机叶片的方法。  below describes the use of so-called closed hollow molded piece of grades manufactured wind turbine blade according to the method of the present invention to aid.
 如上文參照图2至图5所述，预制件14形成在预制件成形件12的预制件成形表面13上，且转移至第一模具件10的模制表面11。  As described above with reference to Figures 2 to 5, the preform 14 is formed in the preform molding preform 12 forming the surface 13, and transferred to the molding surface 11 of the first mold member 10. 预制件14适于结合在成整块地形成的风力涡轮机叶片的壳件中，该壳件形成叶片的压カ侧。 Preform 14 is adapted to combine housing member formed in a single piece of a wind turbine blade, the shell is formed side of the blade pressure grades. 图6示出了转移至第一模具件10的模制表面11的预制件14。 Figure 6 shows a first mold member is transferred to the surface of the molding preform 10 14 11.
 如图7中所示，适于结合到叶片的吸力侧壳件中的附加预制件22形成在附加预制件成形件24的预制件成形表面23上。  As shown in Figure 7, adapted to be coupled to the suction side of the housing member 22 is formed of the additional leaves in the additional preform preform molding preform 24 formed on the surface 23. 附加预制件形成部分24的预制件成形表面23定形为与图8中所示的附加模具件26的模具件模制表面25基本上互补。 Additional mold member molding surface forming a mold member attached preform 24, the preform portion 8 shaped surface 23 is shown in FIG. 26 of 25 shaped substantially complementary. 类似于预制件14，如图7中所示，附加预制件22包括下纤维层27、形成主叠层28的多个纤维层、形成前缘纤维增强部29的多个纤维层、形成后缘纤维增强部30的多个纤维层、布置在前缘纤维增强部29 与主叠层28之间的第一芯材料31、布置在后缘纤维增强部30与主叠层28之间的第二芯材料，以及布置在主叠层28、前缘纤维增强部29、后缘纤维增强部30、第一芯材料31和第二芯材料32的顶上的一个或多个其他纤维层33。 Similar to the preform 14, as shown in Figure 7, the additional fiber preform 22 includes a lower layer 27 forming the main stack 28 of a plurality of layers of fiber, the fiber-reinforced portion forming the leading edge 29 of a plurality of fiber layers, after forming the edge a second plurality of fiber layers of fiber reinforced portion 30, is disposed in the leading edge portion 29 of the main fiber reinforced laminate material 28 between the first core 31, disposed between the rear edge portion 30 of the main fiber-reinforced laminate 28 core material, and is disposed in the main stack 28, the leading edge portion 29 a fiber-reinforced, fiber-reinforced trailing edge portion 30, a top of the first core material 31 and the second core material 32 or a plurality of other fiber layers 33.
 在形成于附加预制件成形件24的预制件成形表面23上之后，如图8中所示，将附加预制件22转移至附加模具件26的模具件模制表面25。  In the formation of the additional preform molding preform 24 after the forming surface 23, shown in Figure 8, the preform 22 attached to the transfer molding surface of the mold member 25 of mold member 26 is attached. 在本实施例中，通过使附加预制件部分24从图7中所示的位置上下倒转来将附加预制件22转移至附加模具件26，同时将附加预制件22保持在附加预制件成形件24中，且然后从附加预制件形成部分24释放预制件22，以便将预制件收纳在附加模具件26的模制表面25上。 In the present embodiment, by making the additional portion of the preform 24 inverted from the position shown in FIG. 7 to 22 to the vertical transfer of the preform to attach additional mold member 26 while the preform 22 is maintained at the additional preform forming member 24 attached in, and then forming portion of the preform 24 is released from the attached preform 22, so that the preform housed on the molding surface of the mold member 26 of the additional 25. 然后，从附加模具件26除去附加预制件成形件24。 Then, the mold 26 is removed from the additional add-molded preform 24.
 在本实施例中，通过将聚合物箔布置在附加预制件22的顶上来将附加预制件22保持在附加预制件成形件24中，以便形成聚合物箔与预制件成形表面23之间的腔体且抽空所述腔体。  In the present embodiment, by adding additional polymer foil is disposed on top of the preform 22 to attach the preform 22 held in the preform forming member 24 attached so as to form a polymer foil with a surface 23 of the preform molding and evacuating the cavity between the cavity.
 如图9中所示，在两个预制件14、22形成和转移至其相应的模具件10、26之后，合起且组装预制件，同时将预制件保持在其相应的模具件中，以便形成具有限定中空内部的内表面的中空预制件，且中空预制件由第一模具件10和附加模具件26形成的外封闭模具包绕。  As shown in FIG. 9, 14, 22 are formed in both the preform and transferred to their respective die members 10, 26 after, taken together and assembled preform while the preform remains in its respective mold member in order to form a hollow preform having an inner surface defining a hollow interior, and hollow preform mold formed by the first mold member 10 and the additional member 26 surrounding the outer mold closed.
 通过将至少ー个聚合物膜34(即，真空袋）布置在中空预制件的内表面上来形成模腔，且随后抽空模腔。  By ー least one polymer film 34 (i.e., vacuum) disposed onto the cavity formed in the inner surface of the hollow preform, and then evacuated cavity.
 当用于形成预制件14、22的纤维材料预浸溃有树脂时，加热模具件10、26来液化树脂，随后固化树脂来提供形成为单件的叶片。  When the preform fiber material 14, 22 for forming prepregs collapse resin, heating the mold parts 10, 26 to liquefy the resin, followed by curing the resin to provide a blade formed as a single piece.
 如果用于形成预制件的纤维材料为干纤维材料，则通过借助于提供的真空将液体树脂灌注到腔体中且允许树脂固化来将叶片形成为单件。  If the preform for forming the fibrous material is dry fiber material, by means of a vacuum supplied through the liquid resin is poured into the cavity and allowing the resin to cure the blade is formed as a single piece.
 參照有利实施例已描述了本发明。  Referring to an advantageous embodiment of the present invention has been described. 然而，本发明的范围不限于所述的实施例，且在不偏离本发明的范围的情况下可实现变动和改迸。 However, the scope of the present invention is not limited to the embodiments described, and without departing from the scope of the present invention can achieve change and circumstances change 迸.
 參考数字清单  Reference numeral list
I 风カ涡轮机叶片2 根区 I ka wind turbine blade 2 area
3 翼型区 3 Wing area
4 过渡区 4 transition zone
5 前缘 5 front edge
6 后缘 6 trailing edge
7 弦平面 7 chord plane
8 吸カ侧9 压カ侧 8 9 suction-side pressure ka ka side
10 第一模具件 A first mold part 10
11 第一模具件模制表面 11 first mold member molding surface
12 预制件成形件 12 preform formed parts
13 预制件成形表面 13 of the preform molding surface
14 预制件 14 preform
15 下纤维层 15 lower fibrous layer
16 主叠层 16 main stack
17 前缘纤维增强部 17 leading edge fiber-reinforced section
18 后缘纤维增强部 Edge fiber-reinforced after 18
19 第一芯材料 19 of the first core material
20 第二芯材料 20 second core material
21 上纤维层 21 fiber layer
22 附加预制件 22 additional preform
23 预制件成形表面 23 of the preform molding surface
24 附加预制件成形件 24 additional preform formed parts
25 模具件模制表面 Mold member molding surface 25
26 附加模具件 26 additional mold parts
27 下纤维层 27 lower fibrous layer
28 主叠层 28 main stack
29 前缘纤维增强部 29 leading edge fiber-reinforced section
30 后缘纤维增强部 Edge fiber-reinforced after 30
31 第一芯材料 31 of the first core material
32 第二芯材料 32 second core material
33 上纤维层 33 fiber layer
34 聚合物膜 34 polymer film
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|CN101267935A *||18 Sep 2006||17 Sep 2008||空中客车德国有限公司;德国航空航天中心||Method and device for placing thin material layers onto a relief mould|
|EP0271263A2 *||26 Nov 1987||15 Jun 1988||Westland Group Plc||Method and apparatus for laying a sheet of material on a surface|
|EP0577505A1 *||30 Jun 1993||5 Jan 1994||Societe Nationale D'etude Et De Construction De Moteurs D'aviation, "S.N.E.C.M.A."||Apparatus for the fabrication by draping of multilayered structures of composite material|
|EP2033769A1 *||4 Sep 2007||11 Mar 2009||Lm Glasfiber A/S||A method of producing a composite structure via intermediate products and a composite structure obtainable by the method|
|WO1989005717A1 *||14 Dec 1988||29 Jun 1989||Ab Volvo||A method of applying a mixture of plastic material and reinforcing fibres in a mould|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|CN104552994A *||23 Jan 2015||29 Apr 2015||南京航空航天大学||Z-pin reinforced composite wind turbine blade and manufacturing method thereof|
|International Classification||B29B11/16, B29C70/48, B29C31/08, B29C70/54|
|Cooperative Classification||Y02P70/523, F03D1/0675, Y02E10/721, B29L2031/082, B29K2105/246, B29C70/541, B29C70/48, B29K2105/0809, B29L2031/085|
|European Classification||B29C70/48, B29B11/16, B29C70/54A|
|19 Dec 2012||C06||Publication|
|6 Feb 2013||C10||Entry into substantive examination|
|2 Sep 2015||C14||Grant of patent or utility model|