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Publication numberCN102434384 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 201110394192
Publication date2 May 2012
Filing date22 Nov 2011
Priority date11 Nov 2011
Also published asWO2013067916A1
Publication number201110394192.5, CN 102434384 A, CN 102434384A, CN 201110394192, CN-A-102434384, CN102434384 A, CN102434384A, CN201110394192, CN201110394192.5
Inventors张向增
Applicant张向增
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Novel composite material blade of horizontal shaft wind generating set
CN 102434384 A
Abstract
The invention relates to a novel composite material blade of a horizontal shaft wind generating set; a pneumatic function part and a bearing structure part of the blade are designed to be separated from each other respectively, the bearing structure breaks the geometric limit of a pneumatic airfoil shape contour profile and extends out of a pneumatic molded surface, an outer bearing structure and a pneumatic structure part act on together to form a main bearing structure of the blade. A pneumatic airfoil shape can be a combination of a hollow structural section with a constant cross section which is formed by protrusion process. By the design concept, a large blade can be easily realized, and a large sectional type blade can be produced, the power can be ensured, and the flexural rigidity of the blade is increased, the material efficiency is greatly increased and the cost of the blade is reduced.
Claims(8)  translated from Chinese
1. 一种水平轴风力发电机组新型复合材料叶片,具有独立的气动翼型和承载结构,其特征在于:叶片有一个位于气动翼型(1)外部的、提升叶片纵向抗弯刚度的外置纵向梁⑵。 A horizontal axis wind turbine blades new composite material, which has an independent pneumatic airfoil and load-bearing structure, characterized in that: there is one in the pneumatic blade airfoil (1) outside the lifting blades of longitudinal flexural rigidity of external longitudinal beam ⑵.
2.根据权利要求1所述的复合材料叶片,其特征在于:外置纵向梁(2)位于气动翼型(1)的气动压力面(PS)侧。 2. The composite blade according to claim 1, characterized in that: an external longitudinal beam (2) located on the pneumatic airfoil (1) pneumatic pressure surface (PS) side.
3.根据权利要求1所述的复合材料叶片,其特征在于:沿叶片纵向长度上,气动翼型(1)至少含有一段恒定横截面的叶片片段,由多段叶片片段组成的叶片,每段叶片片段都具有特定弦长的恒定的横截面,对于每段恒定横截面的叶片片段,从叶片的叶根向叶尖方向, 每个微分横截面绕变桨中心轴连续扭转一定角度。 3. The composite blade according to claim 1, wherein: along a longitudinal length of the blade, aerodynamic airfoil (1) comprising at least a period of constant cross-section of the blade segment, the blade of the multi-stage blade fragments, each blade fragment has a constant cross-section of a particular chord for each blade segment constant cross-section, from the blade root to the blade tip direction, each of the differential cross section around the pitch angle to the central axis of the continuous twist.
4.根据权利要求1所述的复合材料叶片,其特征在于:叶片气动翼型(1)由按照叶素理论计算获得的不同半径位置有不同弦长和厚度的几何形状,从叶根到叶尖叶片气动翼型(1)的弦长和厚度连续递减变化。 The composite blade according to claim 1, characterized in that: pneumatic blade airfoil (1) by the blade element theory calculated according to different radial positions have different geometries chord and thickness from the blade root to leaf aerodynamic airfoil blade tip (1) of chord changes and continuously decreasing thickness.
5.根据权利要求1所述的复合材料叶片,其特征在于:外置纵向梁(是具有对称气动型面结构的、从叶根到叶尖横截面积逐步减小的薄板。 5. The composite blade according to claim 1, characterized in that: an external longitudinal beam ( is, from the blade root to the blade tip gradually decreases in cross-sectional area has a symmetrical aerodynamic profile sheet structure.
6.根据权利要求1或5所述的复合材料叶片,其特征在于:抵御弯曲变形的外置纵向梁O)为碳纤维增强树脂复合材料。 6. The composite blade according to claim 1 or 5, characterized in that: resist bending deformation of the external longitudinal beam O) is a carbon fiber reinforced resin composite material.
7.根据权利要求1所述的复合材料叶片,其特征在于:叶片的变桨轴线和气动翼型(1) 形成的气动中心轴线基本重合,在气动翼型(1)为预弯型叶片时二者主要是在叶根段重I=IO When the aerodynamic center axis of the blade pitch axis and pneumatic airfoil (1) forming a substantially coincide, pre-curved blade airfoil aerodynamic (1): 7. The composite blade according to claim 1, characterized in that Both mainly in the blade root segment weight I = IO
8.根据权利要求1所述的复合材料叶片,其特征在于:在气动翼型(1)的分段连接处自然断开,采用法兰螺栓结构连接组合。 8. A composite blade according to claim 1, characterized in that: pneumatic airfoil (1) natural connection disconnected segments, flange bolts connection structure combinations.
Description  translated from Chinese

一种水平轴风力发电机组新型复合材料叶片 A horizontal axis wind turbine of new composite blade

所属技术领域: Technical field:

[0001] 本发明涉及一种水平轴风力发电机组新型复合材料叶片。 [0001] The present invention relates to a horizontal axis wind turbine blade new composite materials. 叶片的气动功能部分和承载结构部分相互分离设计,承载结构突破了气动翼型轮廓的几何限制而延伸到气动型面外部。 Pneumatic function portion and the load-bearing structure of the blade separated from each design, load-bearing structures break through the geometric limit aerodynamic airfoil profile which extends to the external aerodynamic profile. 外部承载结构和气动结构部分共同作用,构造出叶片的主承载结构。 External load-bearing structure and aerodynamic moieties together, constructed out of the main load-bearing structure of the blade. 这种设计理念形成的叶片,在保障气动功率的前提下,极大地提升了叶片的抗弯刚度并大幅度降低叶片的成本,材料利用效率大幅度提升。 This blade design philosophy formed under the premise of protecting the pneumatic power, greatly enhancing the bending stiffness of the blade and significantly reduce the cost of the blade, greatly enhance material utilization efficiency.

[0002] 本发明属于水平轴风力发电机组复合材料叶片制造领域。 [0002] The present invention pertains to a horizontal axis wind turbine composite blade manufacturing. 背景技术: BACKGROUND:

[0003] 现代水平轴风力发电机组复合材料叶片,无论是采用预弯结构还是碳纤维材料增强结构,都极限地优化了叶片而无法再度突破。 [0003] Modern horizontal axis wind turbine blade composites, whether it is pre-bent structure or the structure of carbon fiber reinforced materials are limits to optimize the blade and could not break through again. 其根本原因就是受制于叶片气动翼型轮廓的几何限制,使得材料的结构性能发挥不出来。 The fundamental reason is subject to the geometrical restrictions aerodynamic blade airfoil profile, so that the structure of the material properties play out. 具体说叶片在挥舞方向承受最大的气动升力而产生巨大弯矩,但叶片在这个方向的厚度受到翼型几何的限制,从而使得叶片在这个方向的抗弯刚度受到限制,即使采用高模量的碳纤维材料增强,对于大型的叶片来说依然显得刚度不足。 Specifically blades bear waving direction of maximum aerodynamic lift generated great moment, but the thickness in this direction by the blade airfoil geometry restrictions, so that the flexural rigidity of the blades in this direction is limited, even with high modulus Carbon fiber reinforced material, still appears to lack the stiffness of the blade is for large. 叶片预弯技术只是改变叶片挠曲变形的初始位置,并不能增加叶片自身的抗弯刚度。 Pre-curved blade technology is changing the initial position of the blade deflection, and can not increase the bending stiffness of the blade itself.

[0004] 我们知道,“工”字梁具有最优异的抗弯特性和材料效率。 [0004] As we know, "workers" beam with the most excellent bending properties and material efficiency. 从矩形截面悬臂梁的抗弯变形特性分析我们知道,梁的抗弯刚度和梁的高度三次方成比例、和材料模量的一次方成比例。 From cantilever bending deformation characteristics of rectangular cross-section analysis, we know that the height is proportional to the cube of the bending stiffness of the beam and the beam, and the modulus of a material is proportional. 所以,增加叶片结构的厚度比选用高模量材料更加有效。 Therefore, increasing the thickness of the blade structure is more effective than use of high modulus material. 因此,提升叶片抗弯刚度的方法就在于如何保障气动功能的前提下加大叶片的承力结构的厚度。 Thus, the bending stiffness of lifting blades is that the premise of how to increase the thickness of the blade to protect the pneumatic function of the load-bearing structure. 答案就是突破叶片气动翼型厚度的限制,让承载结构相对于气动翼型外置。 The answer is to break out aerodynamic blade airfoil thickness, so that load-bearing structure with respect to the aerodynamic airfoil external.

[0005] 风力发电机组使用的叶片,在叶片的叶尖处有最大来流速度,可以达到65m/s的水平,相当于1/5音速。 [0005] The use of wind turbine blades, the tip of the blade at maximum flow velocity can reach 65m / s level equal to 1/5 of the speed of sound. 这在空气动力学中属于低速气动范围,这就使得叶片承载结构相对于气动翼型外置成为可能。 It belongs to the low-speed aerodynamics aerodynamic range, which makes the blade-bearing structure with respect to the aerodynamic airfoil external possible.

发明内容: SUMMARY:

[0006] 本发明的目的是实现一种轻质的、廉价的、可靠的水平轴风力发电机组大型叶片的设计制造技术。 [0006] The object of the present invention is to achieve a lightweight, inexpensive, and reliable large horizontal axis wind turbine blade design and manufacturing technology.

[0007] 所谓大直径叶轮和大型叶片,可以理解为直径在80m以上、叶片长度40m以上的叶轮。 [0007] The so-called large-diameter impeller and large leaves, can be understood as more than 80m in diameter, 40m above the impeller blade length.

[0008] 本发明的思路就是突破叶片气动翼型厚度的限制,让承载结构外置。 [0008] The idea of the present invention is to break through the restrictions aerodynamic blade airfoil thickness, so that the external load-bearing structure.

[0009] 类似一般梁的弯曲变形原理,叶片纵向弯曲变形时,位于弯曲形心轴一侧的材料承受压缩应力,而另一侧的材料承受拉伸应力。 Bending deformation theory [0009] similar general of the beam, while the blade longitudinal bending, the curved shape of the mandrel material is subjected to compressive stress side, while the other side of the material to withstand tensile stress. 对于不同材料和结构形状,承受压缩和拉伸的能力不同。 And structural shapes for different materials, the ability to withstand compression and tension are different. 本专利设计为气动翼型侧承受压缩应力,而外置的纵向梁承受拉伸应力,在提升抗弯刚度的同时,充分利用翼型几何尺寸来提升叶片的弯曲稳定性。 The patented design of aerodynamic airfoil side subjected to compressive stress, and external longitudinal beams subjected to tensile stress in enhancing flexural rigidity while fully utilizing curved airfoil geometry to enhance the stability of the blade. 对于气动翼型部分, 自然可以采用拉挤工艺制造定截面的型材来组合气动翼型。 For aerodynamic airfoil section, naturally manufactured using the pultrusion process to combine fixed-sectional profile aerodynamic airfoil. 理论上从叶根到叶尖需要叶片翼型的弦长不同,本发明的方案是采用分段组合近似处理方法,即由拉挤工艺成型的、不同弦长和厚度的恒定横截面叶片片段组合而成整个叶片的气动翼型。 Theoretically blade airfoil chord from the blade root to tip different needs, the present invention is to use a combination of sub-approximation method, namely by the pultrusion molding process, the constant cross-section of different chord length and thickness of the blade fragment combination from the entire blade airfoil aerodynamic. 对于外置的纵向梁部分,纵向梁承受拉伸应力,单向纤维增强树脂复合材料是最理想的选择,由于不存在屈曲稳定性问题,截面尺寸可以很小,为减小风阻和风扰动,提升叶片总体气动效率,纵向梁的几何形状也需要有气动特性,采用轴对称型面的扁平形状为宜。 For external longitudinal beam sections, longitudinal beams subjected to tensile stress, unidirectional fiber reinforced composite material is the best choice, because there is no buckling problem, cross-sectional dimensions can be small, in order to reduce drag and wind disturbance, improve overall aerodynamic efficiency of the blade geometry of the longitudinal beams also need to have the aerodynamic characteristics, the use of a flat shape axis symmetric surface is appropriate. 而且,纵向梁采用碳纤维复合材料更为合适。 Furthermore, longitudinal beams made of carbon fiber composite material is more appropriate.

[0010] 当然,位于外置纵向梁和气动翼型之间的连结结构也要有气动特性,减小风阻和风扰动。 [0010] Of course, located in the external longitudinal connecting structure between the beam and the aerodynamic airfoil aerodynamic characteristics also have to reduce drag and wind disturbances. 可以是三明治泡沫夹心结构。 Foam sandwich can be a sandwich structure.

[0011] 每支叶片必须能够实现独立变桨控制,这是现代水平轴风机必须具备的能力。 [0011] Each blade must be able to implement individual pitch control, which is a modern horizontal-axis wind turbine must have the ability. 本发明所述的叶片的变桨轴,和气动翼型形成的气动中心轴线基本重合,这样,叶片回转变桨时,能够完全实现叶片不同位置的气动攻角调节。 Pitch axis of the blade of the present invention, and aerodynamic airfoil aerodynamic center axis substantially coincident formed, so that the blades back shift paddles, able to fully realize the angle of attack aerodynamic blade adjusting different positions.

[0012] 下面结合附图阐述本发明的具体实施例。 [0012] set forth below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of specific embodiments of the present invention.

附图说明: Brief description:

[0013] 图1是一个叶片的总体结构示意图; [0013] FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an overall structure of the blade;

[0014] 图2是一个叶片中部截面剖视图; [0014] FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a middle-section blade;

[0015] 图1中,1-气动翼型、2-外置纵向梁、3-立撑板、4-斜拉筋、5-叶尖、6-叶根连接段、FL-分布升力、PXl-变桨轴线; [0015] FIG. 1, 1 aerodynamic airfoil, 2 external longitudinal beams, 3 vertical riser, 4 diagonal bar, 5-tip, 6-blade root connection section, FL- distributed lift, PXl - pitch axis;

[0016] 图2中,1-气动翼型、2-外置纵向梁、3-立撑板、7-前缘、8_后缘、9_腹板、Xl-翼型弦线、X2-外置纵向梁弦线、X3-抗弯截面形心轴线、PS-气动压力面、SS-气动吸力面、 Lc-净空距离、T-翼型厚度。 [0016] FIG. 2, the airfoil aerodynamic 1-, 2- external longitudinal beams, vertical riser 3-, 7- front edge, rear edge 8_, 9_ web, Xl- airfoil chord, X2- external longitudinal beam strings, X3- bending cross section centroid axis, PS- pneumatic pressure surface, SS- pneumatic suction surface, Lc- clearance distance, T- airfoil thickness.

[0017] 在图1中,叶片主体承载结构由气动翼型1部分和外置纵向梁2两部分构成。 [0017] In Figure 1, the main load-bearing structure consists of blade airfoil aerodynamic parts 1 and 2 external longitudinal beams in two parts. 二者之间靠连结结构结合在一起,成为一个能够有效抵抗叶片弯曲变形的承载结构。 By connecting structure between the two together into a blade can effectively resist bending load-bearing structure. 连结结构可以是由立撑板3和斜拉筋4构成的网格结构。 Link structure may be a structure composed of vertical support grid plates 3 and 4 diagonal bar.

[0018] 从图1可以看出,外置纵向梁2突破了气动翼型1的几何轮廓的限制,放置在气动翼型1的外面。 [0018] As can be seen from Figure 1, the external longitudinal beams 2 to break the limit aerodynamic airfoil geometric outlines 1, placed outside the aerodynamic airfoil 1. 气动分布升力FL沿叶片纵向分布在气动翼型1的外表面。 FL aerodynamic lift distribution along the blade on the outer surface of the vertical distribution of aerodynamic airfoil 1.

[0019] 当然,叶片结构尚且必须有叶尖5和叶根连接段6附属部分。 [0019] Of course, the blade structure yet it must be connected to the root tip sections 5 and 6 appendage. 叶根连接段6完成连接轮毂功能,并能够承载叶根巨大的弯矩载荷。 Blade root connection section 6 to complete the connection hub function, and is capable of carrying huge blade root bending moment.

[0020] 叶片的变桨轴线和气动翼型形成的气动中心轴线基本重合,在气动翼型1为预弯型叶片时二者主要是在叶根段重合。 [0020] The pneumatic central axis of the blade pitch axis and aerodynamic airfoil formed substantially coincident, the two are coincident at a pre-curved aerodynamic airfoil blades mainly in the blade root section.

[0021] 沿一支叶片纵向长度上,气动翼型1至少含有一段恒定横截面的叶片片段,由多段叶片片段组成的叶片,每段叶片片段都具有特定弦长的恒定的横截面,对于每段恒定横截面的叶片片段,从叶片的叶根向叶尖方向,每个微分横截面绕变桨中心轴连续扭转一定角度,这个角度的大小视气动攻角设计确定。 [0021] along a longitudinal length of the blade, an aerodynamic airfoil vanes comprising at least a period of constant cross-section segments, the multi-stage blade of the blade fragments, each fragment has a specific blade chord length of constant cross section, for each section of constant cross-section of the blade segments, blade from the blade root to tip direction, each of the differential cross section around the central axis continuous twist pitch a certain angle, angle of attack aerodynamic design depending on the size of the angle is determined. 图1示意出由三段定截面气动翼型组成的叶片形式。 Figure 1 illustrates a blade form consists of three sections consisting of fixed-section aerodynamic airfoil. 在图1的右侧示意出在ABC三处不同位置采用了不同弦长的恒定的横截面气动翼型,其规律是从叶根到叶尖弦长减小、叶片厚度也减小。 On the right side of Figure 1 illustrates the three different locations at ABC with a different chord of constant cross-section aerodynamic airfoil, the law is from the root to the tip chord reduced blade thickness is reduced. 这是考虑叶片结构稳定性的需要。 This is required to consider the structural stability of the blade.

[0022] 当然,叶片的气动翼型1这部分完全可以是弦长和厚度连续变化的形式,即按照叶素理论计算获得的不同半径位置处不同叶片弦长的叶片几何外型,仍然符合从叶根到叶尖弦长减小的规律。 [0022] Of course, the aerodynamic blade airfoil section 1 can be chord length and thickness of the continuous change in the form of a position that is different radial blade element theory calculated in accordance with the different chord length of the blade geometry appearance, still in line with the the blade root to tip chord reduction law. 气动翼型1要符合特定的气动扭角。 1 To meet specific aerodynamic airfoil aerodynamic twist angle. [0023] 气动翼型1采用恒定横截面分段组合技术方案可以使用由拉挤成型工艺制造的叶片型材来组合,实现自动化连续生产,而弦长和厚度连续变化的叶片则需要用分瓣的模具间歇式制造。 [0023] The aerodynamic airfoil 1 in combination with a constant cross-section segment technology You can use the blade profiles made by the pultrusion process to combine, automated continuous production, and chord length and thickness varies continuously leaves you need to use the split of Die batch production. 前者具有更高的可靠性和更低的制造成本,技术经济性优势明显。 The former has a higher manufacturing cost and lower reliability, technical and economic advantages.

[0024] 关于立撑板3和斜拉筋4也有较多的技术讲究。 [0024] For the vertical riser 3 and 4 diagonal bar also has more technical attention. 立撑板3也应该有合适的气动外形,最大限度减小空气阻力和减少对气流的扰动。 Vertical riser 3 should have proper aerodynamic shape, minimizing air resistance and reduce the airflow disturbance. 立撑板3可以采用泡沫夹心的三明治结构。 Upright support plate 3 can be used in sandwich foam sandwich. 从叶根到叶尖,立撑板3的高度减小,厚度减小。 From the blade root to tip, vertical riser height 3 decreases the thickness decreases. 而斜拉筋4则完全是单向纤维增强树脂复合材料。 The diagonal bar 4 is completely unidirectional fiber reinforced composite materials. 因为叶片气动翼型上产生的分布升力FL载荷是分布在叶片的整个长度上,所以不同位置的斜拉筋4可以根据分布载荷的大小来分配合适的横截面积。 Because generated on the blade airfoil aerodynamic lift force FL distributed load is distributed over the entire length of the blade, so oblique stretching four different locations can be assigned an appropriate cross-section according to the size distribution of the load.

[0025] 因为叶尖的气流速度最高,为降低阻力和噪声,外置纵向梁2不一定在叶尖位置开始生成,例如,可以在距离叶尖1/5叶片长度的位置开始、直到叶根部位结束。 [0025] Because the tip of the air flow velocity up, in order to reduce resistance and noise, external longitudinal beam 2 need not start generating at the tip position, for example, start at a distance of 1/5 of the blade length of the tip position, until the blade root End site.

[0026] 外置纵向梁2和斜拉筋4可以一体成型制造。 [0026] The external longitudinal beam 2 and the diagonal bar 4 may be integrally molding manufacturing. 有一种实施方案就是,每个斜拉筋4的连续纤维从气动翼型的表面起始、跨越立撑板3后一直延伸到叶片的根部。 One embodiment is that each diagonal bar 4 from the surface of the continuous fiber aerodynamic airfoil starting across vertical strut root portion 3 and has been extended to the blade. 这样,所有斜拉筋4延伸纤维束集合成外置纵向梁2。 Thus, all the diagonal bar 4 extending fiber bundles synthesis external longitudinal beam 2. 其结果就是,外置纵向梁2从叶尖到叶根是逐步截面增加的。 As a result, the external longitudinal beams 2 from the tip to the blade root is progressively increasing cross-section. 假设叶片长度45m,每: 一个立撑板3和斜拉筋4,每个纤维复合材料斜拉筋4的横截面积为5平方厘米,可承受50吨以上的拉力,那么,外置纵向梁2从叶尖到叶根每递进:3m的位置其截面积增加5平方厘米,依次是5平方厘米、10平方厘米、15平方厘 Suppose blade length 45m, each: a vertical riser 3 and diagonal bar 4, each fiber composite diagonal bar cross-section 4 of 5 cm2, can withstand more than 50 tons of pulling force, then the external longitudinal beam 2 from the tip to the root of each progressive: 3m location sectional area increased 5 cm2, followed by 5 cm2, 10 cm2, 15 square cm

米..........75平方厘米。 M .......... 75 cm2. 外置纵向梁2叶尖位置截面相当于50mmX 10mm,叶根位置截面 External cross section of the longitudinal beams 2 tip position equivalent 50mmX 10mm, leaves the root of the cross-section

相当于300mmX 25mm。 Equivalent 300mmX 25mm.

[0027] 图2示意出叶片中部某位置的一个截面的剖视图,利用该图来分析该截面的抗弯曲特性,图中给出抗弯截面形心轴线X3,在X3轴左侧,外置纵向梁2承受拉伸应力,在X3轴右侧,气动翼型1承受压缩应力。 [0027] Figure 2 a schematic cross-sectional view of a central section of a vane position, FIG analyzed using the anti-bending properties of the section, the figure shows a cross-sectional centroid bending axis X3, X3 in the left side of the shaft, the external longitudinal Beam 2 withstand tensile stresses in X3 axis on the right side, pneumatic aerofoil 1 under compressive stress. 由于气动翼型1是中空的结构,外包络线有较大的几何面积,因此,抵御纵向压缩稳定性能力较强;而外置纵向梁2承载拉伸应力,所以,截面积可以较小,可以是实心的结构,比如上述范例的变截面实心结构。 Since aerodynamic airfoil 1 is a hollow structure, outer envelope has a larger geometric area, therefore, the ability to resist longitudinal compression strong stability; and external longitudinal beam 2 carrying the tensile stress, so that the cross-sectional area can be smaller , it may be a solid structure, such as variable cross-section of the solid structure of the above example. 考虑到材料的结构效率,气动翼型1外侧的气动吸力面SS的壁厚远大于内侧的气动压力面PS的壁厚。 Taking into account the structural efficiency of materials and wall thickness pneumatic suction surface SS aerodynamic airfoil 1 is much larger than the wall thickness of the outer surface of the pneumatic pressure inside the PS. 考虑到叶片摆振方向的弯曲刚度要求,在该摆振方向,承力结构无法突破气动翼型的限制,该发明的理念不适用在摆振方向,所以,在气动翼型1的前缘7和后缘8都分配有足量的纵向纤维增强。 Taking into account the direction of the blade shimmy bending stiffness requirements, shimmy in the direction of the load-bearing structure can not break through the restrictions aerodynamic airfoil, the concept of the invention is not applicable in the shimmy direction, so that the leading edge of the aerodynamic airfoil 1 7 and the trailing edge 8 is assigned a sufficient amount of longitudinal fiber-reinforced. 为了提升屈曲稳定性,叶片气动翼型1内部有腹板9连结气动翼型1的气动吸力面SS和气动压力面PS。 In order to enhance the buckling, pneumatic blade airfoil 1 internal webs 9 Quick pneumatic airfoil suction surface SS and pneumatic pressure surface PS 1's. 数字举例来形容和理解这个概念,例如叶片某一处截面,弦长为1.6m的气动翼型1,外侧气动吸力面SS壁厚3mm,内侧气动压力面PS壁厚1. 5mm,前缘7内侧补强增加截面积10平方厘米,后缘8内侧补强增加截面积20平方厘米,腹板9厚度2mm。 Digital, for example to describe and understand the concept, such as a cross-section of the blade airfoil aerodynamic chord length of 1.6m of 1, pneumatic suction surface SS outer wall thickness 3mm, the inside of the pneumatic pressure surface PS thickness 1. 5mm, front 7 increasing the cross sectional area of the inside of the reinforcement 10 cm2, after the inside edge reinforcement 8 20 cm2 cross-sectional area increases, the web 9 thickness 2mm. 当然,在叶片的气动吸力面SS、气动压力面PS和腹板9上,肯定需要合理布局和设计有纵向加强筋,加强筋可以是泡沫夹心结构。 Of course, in the leaves of pneumatic suction surface SS, pneumatic pressure surface PS and webs 9, definitely need reasonable layout and design of the longitudinal ribs, rib may be a foam sandwich structure.

[0028] 对于本发明涉及的叶片,如果想采用碳纤维材料来提升整个叶片的抗弯刚度,那么,也仅仅是外置纵向梁2使用碳纤维增强树脂复合材料。 [0028] The present invention relates to the blade, if you want to improve the use of carbon fiber material flexural rigidity of the entire blade, then, it is only an external longitudinal beams 2 carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. 碳纤维虽然模量比玻璃纤维高出4倍以上,但是断裂伸长率很低,叶片变形的柔度有限,如果想采用高强S型玻璃纤维来提升整个叶片的柔度,那么,也仅仅是外置纵向梁2使用高强S型玻璃纤维增强树脂复合材料。 Although the modulus carbon fiber glass fiber more than four times higher, but the elongation at break is very low, limited flexibility of blade deformation, if you want to use S-type high-strength glass fiber to enhance flexibility of the entire blade, then, it is only the outer set longitudinal beam 2 S using high-strength glass fiber reinforced resin composites.

[0029] 图2中,围绕弦线Xl的气动翼型1必然满足气动特性要求。 [0029] FIG. 2, around strings Xl aerodynamic airfoil aerodynamic characteristics of a necessity to meet the requirements. 而围绕弦线X2的外置纵向梁2也要具备气动型面,最大限度减小空气阻力和减少对气流的扰动。 The X2 around strings of external longitudinal beams 2 should have an aerodynamic profile, minimizing air resistance and reduce the airflow disturbance. 外置纵向梁(2)可以是具有对称气动型面结构的、从叶根到叶尖横截面积减小的薄板。 External longitudinal beam (2) may be, from the root to the tip of a thin plate having a symmetrical cross-sectional area to reduce the aerodynamic profile structure. 而且,外置纵向梁2和气动翼型1之间的净空距离Lc最好要大于气动翼型1的翼型厚度T,这样才能有效减少对气流的扰动。 Moreover, the external longitudinal beams 2 and aerodynamic airfoil clearance distance between Lc 1 best aerodynamic airfoil airfoil thickness is greater than T 1, so as to effectively reduce the airflow disturbance. 外置纵向梁2和气动翼型1之间的净空距离越小,叶片抗弯刚度越小, 气动效率越差。 Clearance distance between 2 and aerodynamic airfoil external longitudinal beams 1 smaller blade bending rigidity smaller aerodynamic efficiency worse.

[0030] 叶片的升力特性变差甚至失速,通常是由于气动吸力面SS侧的气流出现分离的原因。 [0030] Leaves lift deteriorated even stall, often due to aerodynamic airflow suction surface side of the reason for the separation of SS appear. 由于外置纵向梁2位于气动翼型1的气动压力面PS侧而不是气动吸力面SS侧,而且保持了净空距离Lc,外置纵向梁2的存在虽然会引起局部气流扰动,但对叶片气动升力的影响有限。 Since the external longitudinal beam 2 is pneumatic airfoil pressure surface PS 1 side instead of pneumatic suction surface SS side, but maintains the clearance distance Lc, the presence of an external longitudinal beams 2, although it will cause local air turbulence, but the blade pneumatic limited impact lift.

[0031] 通过实施例分析知道,传统叶片在承受气动力产生弯曲时,总是气动吸力面SS侧承受压缩应力而气动压力面PS侧承受拉伸应力,弯曲截面的高度为翼型厚度T。 [0031] Examples analysis know that the traditional aerodynamic blade when subjected to bending, always pneumatic suction side surface SS subjected to compressive stress and pneumatic pressure surface PS side to withstand tensile stress, bending cross-section height of airfoil thickness T. 而本发明所述叶片,大体上是气动翼型1的整个截面承受压缩应力而外置纵向梁2承受拉伸应力,弯曲截面的高度为Lc+T。 And the blade of the present invention, substantially the entire cross section of an aerodynamic airfoil to withstand compressive stress and external longitudinal beams 2 to withstand tensile stress, bending cross-section height of Lc + T. 粗略测算,如果Lc+T = 2T,那么抗弯刚度会提升23倍。 Rough estimates, if Lc + T = 2T, then the bending stiffness will increase 23-fold. 换句话说, 如果保持抗弯刚度不变,那么抗弯截面可以减小到原来的1/8 ;如果保持材料用量不变使抗弯刚度提升23倍,意味着叶片可以至少延长一倍,轻易做到大型叶片的制造。 In other words, if you keep the bending stiffness of the same, then the bending section may be reduced to 1/8 of the original; if you keep making the same amount of material to enhance the bending stiffness of 23 times means that the blades can be extended to at least double, easily accomplish the manufacture of large blades. 可见,材料和成本的节约就体现在这里。 Visible, material and cost savings is reflected here.

[0032] 本发明涉及的叶片,显然,在气动翼型1的分段连接处完全可以自然断开,采用法兰螺栓结构连接组合。 [0032] The present invention relates to a blade, apparently, in the aerodynamic airfoil segment junction 1 can naturally disconnected, flange bolts connection structure combinations. 这样,整个叶片可以分段成型和远距离运输,在风机安装现场再组装连接在一起,减小叶片运输的长度、难度和成本。 Thus, the entire blade can be segmented shape and distance transportation, installation site and then assembled together in the fan, reducing the length, difficulty and cost of transportation of the blades.

[0033] 本发明采用让叶片承载结构相对于气动翼型外置的技术构思,虽然在气动效率方面有所损失,但是可以轻易地延长叶片,实现大直径的叶轮和显著增加扫风面积,保证了捕风功率,实现了一种低成本、高可靠、轻巧型大尺寸水平轴风力发电机组叶片。 [0033] The present invention allows the use of blade-bearing structure with respect to the technical concept of the aerodynamic airfoil external, although some loss of aerodynamic efficiency, but can easily be extended blade to achieve a large-diameter impeller and a significant increase in swept area, to ensure that the catch wind power, to achieve a low cost, high reliability, lightweight large horizontal axis wind turbine blades.

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Classifications
International ClassificationF03D1/06
Cooperative ClassificationY02E10/721, F03D1/0675
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