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Publication numberCN102278288 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 201110173516
Publication date14 Dec 2011
Filing date10 Jun 2011
Priority date11 Jun 2010
Also published asCN102278288B, EP2394911A1, EP2394911B1, US8061986, US20110142628
Publication number201110173516.2, CN 102278288 A, CN 102278288A, CN 201110173516, CN-A-102278288, CN102278288 A, CN102278288A, CN201110173516, CN201110173516.2
Inventors熊伟
Applicant通用电气公司
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Wind turbine blades with controllable aerodynamic vortex elements
CN 102278288 A
Abstract
The invention relates to a wind turbine blades with controllable aerodynamic vortex elements. The wind turbine blade (16) has a suction side surface (20) and a pressure side surface (22). A plurality of dynamic vortex elements (24) are formed on at least one of the suction side (20) or the pressure side surfaces (22). The vortex elements (24) are activatable between a first retracted position that is inwardly recessed relative to a neutral plane of the surface on which they are formed and a second extended position that is outwardly protruding relative to the neutral plane of the surface.
Claims(11)  translated from Chinese
1. 一种风力涡轮叶片(16),所述叶片包括:吸力侧表面00)和压力侧表面02);形成于所述吸力侧表面或所述压力侧表面中的至少一个上的多个动态涡旋元件04); 以及,所述涡旋元件可激活到相对于所述表面的中性面向内凹进的第一缩进位置或相对于所述表面的所述中性面向外凸出的第二伸出位置中的任一个。 A wind turbine blade (16), said blade comprising: a suction side surface 00) and a pressure side surface 02); or the pressure surface formed on the side surface of the suction side of at least one of the plurality of dynamic scroll element 04); and, the scroll member can be activated with respect to the inner surface of the recess facing a first neutral or retracted position with respect to the outer surface of the neutral face protruding either a second extended position in.
2.如权利要求1所述的风力涡轮叶片(16),其特征在于,还包括在所述表面(20、22) 中在所述涡旋元件04)中的各个的位置处的凹陷(),所述涡旋元件包括布置在所述凹陷上方的柔性材料层(30),其中所述材料层在所述第一缩进位置中顺应进入所述凹陷而在所述第二伸出位置中在所述凹陷上方向外展开。 2. The wind turbine blade according to claim 1 (16), characterized in that, further comprising a surface (20, 22) in the recess ( at various locations of the element 04) of the vortex ), the scroll element comprises a flexible material disposed in the upper layer (30) of said recess, wherein said material layer conform into said recess in said first retracted position in which said second extended position expand outward at the top of the recess.
3.如权利要求2所述的风力涡轮叶片(16),其特征在于,还包括与所述材料层(30) — 起构造以在所述第一缩进位置和所述第二伸出位置之间移动所述材料层的激活机构(38)。 3. The wind turbine blade according to claim 2 (16), characterized by further comprising a material layer (30) - from a first configuration in said retracted position and said second extended position moving said layer of material between the activation means (38).
4.如权利要求3所述的风力涡轮叶片(16),其特征在于,所述材料层(30)包括压电材料(32),所述激活机构(38)包括连接到所述压电材料的可控电源00)。 4. The wind turbine blade according to claim 3 (16), characterized in that the material layer (30) comprises a piezoelectric material (32), said activation means (38) connected to said piezoelectric material controllable power supply 00).
5.如权利要求4所述的风力涡轮叶片(16),其特征在于,所述多个涡旋元件04)由共同的受控电源G6)进行供应。 5. The wind turbine blade according to claim 4 (16), characterized in that said plurality of scroll member 04) controlled by a common power supply G6) were supplied.
6.如权利要求4所述的风力涡轮叶片(16),其特征在于,所述多个涡旋元件04)分为独立地受控制的组,所述组中的各个组由相应的受控电源GO)进行供应。 6. The wind turbine blade according to claim 4 (16), characterized in that said plurality of scroll element 04) are divided into groups independently controlled, the respective groups of the group controlled by the corresponding Power GO) were supplied.
7.如权利要求4所述的风力涡轮叶片(16),其特征在于,所述多个涡旋元件04)由相应的受控电源GO)单独地控制。 7. The wind turbine blade according to claim 4 (16), characterized in that said plurality of scroll element 04) individually controlled by a respective controlled power GO).
8.如权利要求1所述的风力涡轮叶片(16),其特征在于,所述涡旋元件04)在所述第一缩进位置中以及在所述第二伸出位置中大体上是半球形的。 8. The wind turbine blade according to claim 1 (16), characterized in that said scroll member 04) in said first retracted position and in said second extended position substantially hemispherical shaped.
9.如权利要求1所述的风力涡轮叶片(16),其特征在于,所述涡旋元件04)包括与所述表面的所述中性面共同延伸的第三中性位置。 9. The wind turbine blade according to claim 1 (16), characterized in that said scroll element 04) comprises a third neutral position of the neutral plane of the surface coextensive.
10.如权利要求1所述的风力涡轮叶片(16),其特征在于,所述涡旋元件04)形成于所述吸力侧表面OO)和所述压力侧表面0上。 10. The wind turbine blade according to claim 1 (16), characterized in that said scroll member 04) formed on said suction side surface OO) and the pressure side surface 0.
11. 一种风力涡轮(10),所述风力涡轮包括多个根据权利要求1至10中任何一项形成的涡轮叶片(16)。 11. A wind turbine (10), said wind turbine comprises a plurality of 1 to 10 according to any of the turbine blade (16) is formed of a claim.
Description  translated from Chinese

带有可控的空气动力学涡旋元件的风力涡轮叶片 Air with a controllable dynamics of the wind turbine blade vortex element

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明大体上涉及风力涡轮领域,且更具体而言,涉及具有空气动力学表面构型的涡轮叶片。 [0001] The present invention relates generally to the field of wind turbines, and more specifically, relates to an aerodynamic surface configuration of the turbine blades.

背景技术 BACKGROUND

[0002] 涡轮叶片是风力涡轮的主要元件,其用于将风能转换为电能。 [0002] The turbine blades are the main elements of the wind turbine, which is used to convert wind energy into electrical energy. 该叶片的工作原理类似于飞机机翼的工作原理。 The working principle is similar to an airplane wing blade works. 该叶片具有翼型件的截面轮廓,使得在运行期间,空气流经该叶片而在两侧面之间产生压差。 The blade has a cross-sectional profile of the airfoil, such that during operation, air flows through the blade and creating a pressure differential between the side surfaces. 因此从压力侧朝向吸力侧导向的升力作用在叶片上。 Thus from the pressure side towards the suction side of the guide of the lift acting on the blade. 该升力在主转子轴上产生转矩,该主转子轴通过齿轮连到发电机上,以产生电力。 The lift generated on the main rotor shaft torque to the main rotor shaft by a gear connected to a generator to produce electricity.

[0003] 越过叶片前沿的空气流主要是在粘附流区域中的层流。 [0003] The air flow across the blade leading edge is mainly laminar flow region in the adhesive. 升力主要在这个粘附流区域中产生。 Lift mainly produced in the adhesion stream area. 随着空气朝着叶片后沿移动,流分离发生且空气流过渡到隔离流区域,此处该流更加湍流化。 As the air moves along toward the rear blade, flow separation occurs and the air flow to isolate flow transition region, where the flow of more turbulence. 流分离取决于许多因素,诸如引入空气流特征(例如雷诺数、风速、流入大气湍流)和叶片特征(例如翼型件截面、叶片弦和厚度、扭转分布、桨距角等)。 Flow separation depends on many factors, such as the introduction of the air flow characteristics (such as Reynolds, wind speed, atmospheric turbulence inflow) and leaf characteristics (such as airfoil section chord and thickness, twist distribution, pitch angle, etc.). 隔离流区域还导致主要由上游粘附流区域和下游隔离流区域之间的压差引起的阻力的增加。 Isolated flow region also led to increased mainly by pressure upstream and downstream isolation adhesion stream flow area between the regions due to resistance.

[0004] 因此,为了在风力涡轮的正常运行期间增加能量转换效率,期望在减小阻力的同时增加升力。 [0004] Accordingly, in order during the normal operation of the wind turbine to increase the energy conversion efficiency, it is desirable to reduce the drag and increase lift. 为了这个目的,通过使流分离更靠近叶片后沿(也即在叶片的下游区域中) 而增大粘附流区域并减小隔离流区域会是有利的。 For this purpose, the flow separated by the blade closer to edge (i.e. in the downstream region of the blade) increases the flow area and reduce the adhesion of isolated flow region may be advantageous. 同样,大体期望具有稳定的流分离,以便增加叶片的工作稳定性并减少其噪音产生。 Similarly, generally desirable to have a stable flow separation, in order to increase the stability of the work blade and reduce their noise generation.

[0005] 在本领域中已知的是通过在叶片表面上增加微坑、凸出或其它结构来改变风力涡轮叶片的空气动力学特性。 [0005] In the art, it is known that by increasing the micro-pits on the surface of the blade, projections or other structure to change the aerodynamic properties of the wind turbine blade. 这些结构通常被称为“涡旋产生器”,并用于在叶片表面上产生空气流的微湍流区域。 These structures are often called "vortex generator", and the micro-turbulent region for generating the air flow on the blade surface. 这导致了在大体上更靠近叶片根部的叶片的相对低速区域中的流过渡稳定性。 This leads to the stability of flow in the transition region is substantially closer to the relatively low speed of the blade root of the blade. 在更接近叶片尖端的叶片的相对更高速区域处,该涡旋产生器用于使空气流的流分离朝叶片后沿延伸,以产生更多提升并减少阻滞。 Closer to the tip of the blade relative to the blade at a higher speed region, the vortex generator for the flow separation of the air flow toward the blade rear edge extending to generate more enhance and reduce blocking.

[0006] 已知静态或固定涡旋产生元件。 [0006] Known static or fixed scroll generating element. 例如参考W02007/065434 ;W000/15961和美国专利No. 7604461。 For example reference W02007 / 065434; W000 / 15961 and US Patent No. 7604461. 这些参考资料中的涡旋元件具有限定的不变的形状、尺寸和构型,且因此用于改变空气流状况的元件的通用性受到了限制。 These references scroll member having a defined constant shape, size and configuration versatility, and thus for varying the air flow conditions element is limited.

[0007] 还已知相对于叶片表面部署的可缩进的或枢轴式涡旋产生器。 [0007] It is also known with respect to the retractable vortex generators or vanes pivotally surface deployment. 例如参考美国专利No. 4039161 ;美国专利No. 5253828 ;美国专利No. 6105904 ;美国专利No. 6427948 和W02007/005687。 For example, reference US Patent No. 4039161; US Patent No. 5253828; US Patent No. 6105904; US Patent No. 6427948 and W02007 / 005687.

[0008] EP1896323B1描述了平面构件的形式的枢轴式涡旋产生器,其在缩进状态中处于流控制表面上而在伸出状态中从该表面以一定角度枢轴转动。 [0008] EP1896323B1 describes the form of the planar member pivotally vortex generator, which is pivoted at a certain angle and in the extended state from the upper surface of the flow control surface in the retracted state. 该涡旋产生器可从由加热器促动的形状记忆合金形成。 The vortex generator may from a shape memory alloy actuator is formed by a heater. 该参考资料描述了可使用其它类型的促动器(包括双压电晶片促动器)向涡旋产生器施加枢轴转动的动作。 This reference describes a use other types of actuator (including a bimorph actuator) applied to the pivotable motion vortex generator.

[0009] 美国专利No. 7293959描述了具有为沿着叶片吸力侧的后沿和前沿以纵向方向延伸的柔性襟翼的形式的升力调节工具的风力涡轮叶片。 [0009] U.S. Patent No. 7293959 describes a lift having a flexible flap trailing edge and leading edge along the suction side of the blade extending in the longitudinal direction of the adjustment tool in the form of a wind turbine blade. 该襟翼在高风速时被激活以减小叶片的提升。 The flap is activated at high wind speed to reduce the lifting of the blade. 该激活工具可为压电的。 The activation tool for piezoelectric. [0010] 尽管在上文引用的参考资料中所讨论的涡旋产生器因为它们被部署为活动状态而可被认为是“动态”的,这些元件在“静止”状态中的用处最小。 [0010] Although the vortex generator in the above-cited references discussed because they are deployed to the active state and may be considered "active", and these elements in the "stationary" state in usefulness minimum.

[0011] 因此,本行业将从这样的风力涡轮叶片中受益:该风力涡轮叶片具有在更宽范围的风和空气流状况下在活动和非活动两个状态中提供了增强的空气动力学表面特性的动态涡旋产生元件。 [0011] Accordingly, the present industry to benefit from such a wind turbine blade from: The wind turbine blade having in a wider range of wind and air flow conditions to provide enhanced aerodynamic surface in both active and inactive states Dynamic characteristics of the vortex generating elements.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0012] 本发明的各方面和优点将在下文的描述中部分地阐述,或者根据本描述它们可以是显然的,或者它们可以通过对本发明的实施而被了解。 [0012] aspects and advantages of the invention will be set forth in part in the description below, according to this description, or they may be apparent, or they can be obtained by practice of the invention may be learned.

[0013] 根据本发明的各方面,提供了具有吸力侧表面和压力侧表面的风力涡轮叶片。 [0013] According to aspects of the present invention, there is provided a wind turbine blade having a suction side surface and a pressure side surface. 多个动态涡旋元件形成在这些表面的任一个或两个上。 A plurality of dynamic scroll element is formed on either one or both of these surfaces. 该涡旋元件可被激活或可部署到相对于该表面的中性面向内凹进的第一缩进位置,涡旋元件在该位置中形成为限定了凹进的涡旋产生元件,以及相对于该表面的中性面向外凸出的第二伸出位置,涡旋元件在该位置中形成为限定了凸出的涡旋产生元件。 The scroll element can be activated or can be deployed with respect to the neutral surface of the recess facing a first retracted position, the scroll member is formed to define a recessed vortex generating element in this position, and the relative neutral surface facing the outside of the second extended position protruding, scroll element is formed in this position to define a vortex generating elements projecting.

[0014] 在一个具体的实施例中,相应的叶片表面包括在其中形成于各个涡旋元件的位置处的凹陷。 [0014] In a particular embodiment, the surface comprises a respective blade is formed at a position at which each vortex element recess. 该涡旋元件可由布置在该凹陷上方的柔性材料层制成。 The scroll element may be disposed in the recess formed above the layer of flexible material. 该材料层在第一缩进位置中顺应进入该凹陷中而在第二伸出位置中在该凹陷上方向外展开。 The material layer in response to the first retracted position to enter the recess in the second extended position in the recess flared top. 可与该材料层一起构造激活机构以在相应的位置之间移动或部署该材料层。 Together with the activation mechanism may be configured to move the material layer or the material layer deployed between the respective positions. 在一个特别独特的实施例中,该材料层包括压电材料而该激活机构包括连接到该压电材料的可控电源。 In a particularly unique embodiment, the material layer comprises a piezoelectric material which is connected to the activating means comprises a piezoelectric material of the controllable electrical source. 供应到该压电材料的功率的特性决定了该材料相对于叶片表面的中性面呈现伸出的还是缩进的构型。 Power supplied to the piezoelectric material determine the characteristics of the material with respect to the neutral plane of the blade surface or indentation extending rendered configuration. 该功率特性可变化,以在伸出的构型中产生涡旋元件的相应地变化的形状。 The power characteristic may be varied to produce a vortex element in a configuration corresponding to the projected change in shape. 该多个涡旋元件可供应有共同的受控电源,使得它们动作一致,或者为了更精确的控制,它们可单独地供应和控制。 The plurality of vortex elements can be supplied with a common controlled power supply, so that they act in unison, or for more precise control, they may be separately supplied and controlled. 备选地,该涡旋元件可细分为组,且各组单独地控制。 Alternatively, the swirl element may be subdivided into groups, and individually controlling each group.

[0015] 在又一个实施例中,风力涡轮叶片除了动态涡旋元件还可包括静态涡旋元件。 [0015] In yet another embodiment, in addition to the wind turbine blade may further comprise static dynamic scroll element scroll element. 该静态元件可与动态涡旋元件隔离或关于动态涡旋元件散布。 The static element can be isolated or scattered about the dynamic vortex elements and dynamic vortex elements.

[0016] 动态涡旋元件的具体形状和构型不是限制性因素。 [0016] The specific shape of the dynamic configuration of the scroll element and not a limiting factor. 在一个具体的实施例中,元件在缩进和展开的两个构型中大体上是半球形的形状。 In a specific embodiment, the element in the retracted and expanded configuration in two substantially hemispherical shape. 涡旋元件的任何期望的形状、定向或其它几何特征在本发明的范围和实质中。 The scroll element of any desired shape, orientation, or other geometric features in the scope and spirit of the present invention.

[0017] 在另一个独特的实施例中,涡旋元件也可构造为呈现第三中性位置,其中该元件与叶片表面的中性面共同延伸(co-extensive)而因此与该叶片表面基本齐平。 [0017] In another special embodiment, the scroll elements may also be configured to exhibit neutral third position, wherein the neutral plane of the element and the blade surface coextensive (co-extensive) with the blade surface and thus substantially flush.

[0018] 本发明还包括具有一个或多个配置有如本文描述的动态涡旋元件的涡轮叶片的风力涡轮。 [0018] The present invention also includes a configuration like one or more dynamic scroll element described herein turbine blades of the wind turbine.

[0019] 本发明的这些和其它特征、方面和优点通过参照下文描述和所附权利要求将被更好地理解。 [0019] These and other features, aspects, and advantages by reference to the following description and the appended claims the present invention will be better understood requirements. 结合在本申请文件中并构成本申请文件的一部分的附图示出了本发明的实施例,且与本说明一起用于解释本发明的原理。 BRIEF documents incorporated herein and constitute a part of this application, illustrate embodiments of the invention, and together with the description serve to explain the principles of the invention.

附图说明 Brief Description

[0020] 在本申请文件中阐述了本发明的针对本领域一般技术人员而言完整和可实施的公开,包括其最佳模式,其参照了附图,其中:[0021] 图1是传统风力涡轮的透视图; [0020] set forth in this application document may be implemented in a complete disclosure and the present invention is directed to those of ordinary skill, including the best mode, which reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein: [0021] FIG. 1 is a conventional wind perspective view of the turbine;

[0022] 图2是根据本发明的各方面的风力涡轮叶片的一个实施例的透视图; [0022] FIG. 2 is a perspective view of one embodiment of the blade of a wind turbine according to aspects of the present invention;

[0023] 图3是风力涡轮叶片的一个实施例的图解侧视图; [0023] FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic side view of a wind turbine blade of an embodiment;

[0024] 图4是风力涡轮叶片的一个备选实施例的透视图; [0024] FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a wind turbine blade of an alternative embodiment;

[0025] 图5是风力涡轮叶片的一个备选实施例的图解侧视图; [0025] FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic side view of a wind turbine blade an alternative embodiment;

[0026] 图6是相对于涡轮叶片的表面处在伸出位置中的涡旋元件的一个具体实施例的图解侧视和运行图; [0026] FIG. 6 relative to the surface of the turbine blade in the extended position of the scroll element diagrammatic view of one side and run specific embodiment;

[0027] 图7是图6的涡旋元件在相对于涡轮叶片的表面的缩进位置中的图解侧视和运行图; [0027] FIG. 7 is a diagram of a scroll element 6 with respect to the surface of the turbine blade in the retracted position illustrated in FIG side and running;

[0028] 图8是涡旋元件的半球形实施例的图解俯视图;以及, [0028] FIG. 8 is a diagrammatic plan view of a hemispherical embodiment of the orbiting scroll; and,

[0029] 图9是涡轮转子轮毂和叶片的主视图。 [0029] FIG. 9 is a front view of a turbine rotor hub and blades.

[0030] 部件列表 [0030] Parts List

[0031] 风力涡轮10 [0031] The wind turbine 10

[0032]塔架 12 [0032] tower 12

[0033]机舱 14 [0033] 14 cabin

[0034] 涡轮叶片16 [0034] 16 turbine blades

[0035] 转子轮毂18 [0035] The rotor hub 18

[0036] 吸力侧表面20 [0036] suction side surface 20

[0037] 压力侧表面22 [0037] pressure side surface 22

[0038] 涡旋元件M [0038] The scroll element M

[0039] 涡旋产生器25 [0039] vortex generator 25

[0040] 凹陷26 [0040] Depression 26

[0041]蒙皮 28 [0041] Skin 28

[0042] 柔性材料层30 [0042] The flexible material layer 30

[0043] 压电材料32 [0043] The piezoelectric material 32

[0044]导线;34 [0044] wire; 34

[0045] 保持环36 [0045] The retaining ring 36

[0046] 激活机构38 [0046] activation mechanism 38

[0047] 电源40 [0047] Power 40

[0048] 传感器42 [0048] Sensors 42

[0049] 传感器线路44 [0049] sensor line 44

[0050] 中央电源46 [0050] Central Power 46

[0051] 控制器48 [0051] The controller 48

[0052] 涡旋元件组50 [0052] The scroll element groups 50

具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0053] 现将对本发明的实施例进行详细参照,在附图中示出了实施例的一个或多个实例。 [0053] Embodiments of the present invention will now be described in detail with reference to, in the accompanying drawings illustrates one or more instances of embodiments. 各个实例通过对本发明的解释而非对本发明的限制的方式提供。 Each example of the present invention by explanation and not limitation of the present invention to provide. 事实上,对本领域技术人员来说将会显然的是,在本发明中可以不脱离本发明的范围或精神而作出多种修改和变化。 In fact, the skilled artisan will be apparent that, in the present invention and that various modifications and variations can be made without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention. 例如,作为一个实施例的部分来示出或描述的特征可与另一个实施例一起使用而产出一个另外的其它实施例。 For example, as part of one embodiment to the features illustrated or described may be used in conjunction with another embodiment and outputs a still other embodiments. 因此,本发明意图包括处于所附权利要求及其等价物的范围中的这样的修改和变化。 Accordingly, it is intended in the scope of the present invention includes the appended claims and their equivalents of such modifications and variations.

[0054] 图1示出了传统结构的风力涡轮10。 [0054] Figure 1 shows a wind turbine 10 of conventional construction. 该风力涡轮10包括塔架12,机舱14安装在其上。 The wind turbine 10 includes a tower 12, a nacelle 14 mounted thereon. 多个涡轮叶片16安装到转子轮毂18上,而该转子轮毂则连接到使主转子轴转动的主凸缘上。 A plurality of turbine blades 16 mounted to the rotor hub 18, which is connected to the rotor hub of the main rotor shaft of the main flange. 风力涡轮功率产生和控制部件容纳在机舱14中。 The wind turbine power generating and control components housed in the nacelle 14. 提供图1的视图仅是为了说明性目的,其将本发明置于示例性的使用领域中。 Figure 1 provides a view only for illustrative purposes, it will be placed in the present invention is an exemplary field of use. 应该明白本发明不限于任何特定类型的风力涡轮构型。 Be understood that the invention is not limited to any particular type of wind turbine configuration.

[0055] 图2和图4描绘了结合了本发明的各方面的风力涡轮叶片16的实施例。 [0055] Figure 2 and Figure 4 depicts a combination of the embodiment according to aspects of the wind turbine blade 16 of the present invention. 该叶片16包括吸力侧表面20和压力侧表面22。 The blade 16 includes a suction side surface 20 and a pressure side surface 22. 多个动态涡旋元件M形成在表面20和22中的任一个或两者上。 A plurality of dynamic scroll member M is formed on the surface 20 and 22 of either or both. 在图2和图4示出的实施例中,涡旋元件M被描绘为在吸力侧20上。 In Figure 2 and Figure 4 shows an embodiment, M is depicted as a scroll element 20 on the suction side. 涡旋元件M是“动态”的,因为它们在不同的运行位置之间激活或部署。 Scroll element M is "dynamic" in that they activate or deploy between different operating positions. 具体而言,涡旋元件M被激活到第一缩进位置,其中元件M相对于该元件形成于其上的相应表面的中性面向内凹进。 Specifically, the scroll element M is activated to a first retracted position, wherein the element M with respect to the neutral element is formed thereon facing a corresponding surface of the recess. 在图7中描绘了在该缩进状态中的涡旋元件M的一个实施例。 Depicted in the retracted state of the scroll element M in an embodiment in FIG. 7. 如图6中所描绘的,涡旋元件M被部署或激活到相对于涡旋元件形成于其上的表面的中性面向外凸出的第二伸出位置。 6. As depicted, the scroll element M being deployed or activated with respect to the outer scroll member is formed on the surface thereof a neutral face protruding second extended position. 因此应该明白涡旋元件M在第一状态中形成凹进的涡旋产生器而在第二状态中形成凸出的涡旋产生器。 Therefore to be understood that the scroll element M recessed vortex generator and the vortex generator is formed projecting in the second state is formed in the first state.

[0056] 涡旋元件M可与传统的固定涡旋产生器25 (诸如固定鳍状物、楔形物等等)在涡轮叶片表面上以任何样式组合使用,以修改叶片16的空气动力学特性。 [0056] The scroll element M with the conventional fixed scroll generator 25 (such as a fixed fin, wedge, etc.) on the surface of the turbine blades used in combination with any style, in order to modify the aerodynamic properties of the blade 16. 例如,在图2中描绘的实施例中,涂黑的元件是位于叶片16的尖端段处的动态涡旋元件M (凹进或凸出),而较浅的元件是静态或固定涡旋产生器25。 For example, the embodiment depicted in Figure 2, the elements are blacked dynamic scroll element M (concave or convex) section of the blade 16 at the tip, while the lighter elements are static or fixed scroll produces 25. 在图4的实施例中,动态涡旋元件M同静态涡旋产生器25 —样沿着叶片16的长度定位。 In the embodiment of Figure 4, the dynamic scroll element M with a static vortex generator 25 - sample positioned along the length of the blade 16. 另外,多个涡旋元件M可分为不同的组,其中这些组中的第一个组包括所有在伸出位置中的涡旋元件M,而分开的不同组包括所有在缩进或凹进位置中的涡旋元件M。 Further, a plurality of vortex elements M can be classified into different groups, wherein these groups include one group of all in the extended position of the scroll element M, while the separate and distinct group includes all the indented or recessed positions scroll element M.

[0057] 涡旋元件M形成于其上的叶片16的表面20、22形成为具有对应于涡旋元件24 之间的叶片的光滑表面的中性面。 [0057] surface of the blade 16 thereon scroll element M is formed as a neutral surface 20, 22 is formed corresponding to the blade 24 between the smooth surface of the scroll element. 参照图6,处于其展开状态中的涡旋元件M在环绕该涡旋元件M的中性面上方延伸了高度H。 Referring to Figure 6, in its expanded state surrounding the scroll element M at a neutral surface M scroll member extending the height H. 类似地,在图7的涡旋元件M的构型中,元件M相对于环绕该涡旋元件M的表面的中性面具有凹进深度D。 Similarly, in FIG. 7 scroll configuration element M, the element M with respect to the neutral surface of the scroll member surrounds a surface having a recess M depth D.

[0058] 具体参照图6和图7,叶片16包括由诸如模制材料、层压材料等等的任何合适材料形成的外蒙皮观。 [0058] With particular reference to Figures 6 and 7, the blade 16 comprises an outer skin of any suitable material, such as Outlook molding materials, laminated materials, and so formed. 在该蒙皮材料观中在各个涡旋元件M的位置处形成了凹陷26。 Conception of the skin material at a position of each scroll element M forming a recess 26. 涡旋元件M包括布置在凹陷沈上方的柔性材料层30。 M scroll member disposed in the recess above the sink comprises a flexible material layer 30. 在涡旋元件M的缩进位置中,该柔性材料层30顺应进入凹陷沈而限定了凹进的涡旋产生器。 In the vortex element M retracted position, the flexible material layer 30 and defines a recessed conform vortex generator into the recessed sink. 如图6中所描绘,在涡旋元件M的第二伸出位置中,柔性材料层30在凹陷沈上方向外展开而相对于蒙皮观的中性面限定了凸出的涡旋产生器。 As depicted in FIG. 6, the second scroll element M of the extended position, the flexible material layer 30 in the recess above the sink to expand outwardly with respect to the skin surface defines a concept of a neutral projecting vortex generator . 柔性材料层30可由足够柔韧以顺应进入凹陷沈和从该凹陷向外展开、同时经受风力涡轮叶片的环境状况的任何材料限定。 Any material for the flexible material layer 30 may be flexible enough to conform to the sink and into the recess to expand outwardly from the recess, while subjected to environmental conditions of the wind turbine blade is defined. 应该明白本发明不限于任何特定类型的柔性材料层30。 Should be understood that the invention is not limited to any particular type of flexible material layer 30. 可使用保持环或其它结构36来将柔性材料层30附连到蒙皮观。 Retaining ring may be used, or other structure 36 to the flexible material layer 30 is attached to the skin View. 如图6和图7所示,该环36可嵌入到环绕凹陷沈限定的凹槽或沟道中。 6 and 7, the ring 36 can be embedded into a recess defined surround recessed sink or the channel. 在一个备选的实施例中,柔性材料层30可粘接或机械地紧固到凹陷沈周围的蒙皮观。 In an alternative embodiment, the flexible material layer 30 can be bonded or mechanically fastened to the recess around the sink skin View.

[0059] 提供了大体上为38的激活机构以在缩进和伸出状态之间部署柔性材料层30。 [0059] provides a general mechanism for the activation of 38 to deploy a flexible material layer between the indentation 30 and extended state. 激活机构38可为任何形式的适当的系统或机构,诸如气动系统、液压系统、电/机械系统等等。 Activation mechanism 38 may be appropriate system or institution of any kind, such as pneumatic systems, hydraulic systems, electrical / mechanical systems. 例如在未在图中示出的一个具体实施例中,凹陷沈可供应有加压空气源以将柔性材料层30展开到图6所示的位置。 In the example shown in the figure is not one specific embodiment, the recess Shen source of pressurized air may be supplied with the flexible material layer 30 to expand to the position shown in Figure 6. 如图7中所描绘,要缩进层30,可以施加吸力,以移除该空气而将层30拉入与凹陷沈顺应。 As depicted in FIG. 7, to indent layer 30, suction can be applied to remove the air layer 30 will be pulled into the recess Shen Adaptation. 激活机构38也可改变在伸出状态中的涡旋元件的凸出程度或范围。 Activation mechanism 38 may also be changed in an extended state projecting degree or extent of vortex elements. 例如,气动或液压系统可为能够可变化地调节的,以使得涡旋元件相对于蒙皮28的中性表面以变化的程度凸出。 For example, pneumatic or hydraulic systems may be variably adjustable, so that the scroll member 28 with respect to the neutral surface of the skin to change the degree of protrusion.

[0060] 在一个特别独特的实施例中,激活机构38包括与柔性层材料30相结合的压电材料32。 [0060] In a particularly unique embodiment, the activation mechanism 38 includes a flexible layer material 30 and the combination of the piezoelectric material 32. 该压电材料32可为嵌入或以其它方式附连到柔性层材料30的部分上的带状物的形式(如图8所示)。 The piezoelectric material 32 may be embedded or otherwise attached to form the strip portion of the flexible layer of material 30 on (see Figure 8). 在一个备选的实施例中,该压电材料32可为以任何期望的样式或构型贯穿柔性材料层30而分布的纤维的形式。 In an alternative embodiment, the form of the piezoelectric material 32 may be in any desired pattern or configuration through the flexible material layer 30 and the distribution of the fibers.

[0061] 压电促动器的运行是众所周知的,且因而在此处不需详细描述。 [0061] The operation of the piezoelectric actuator are well known, and thus need not be described in detail herein. 大体上,传统的压电纤维复合材料促动器包括装入保护性聚合物基体材料中的一层挤压成型的压电纤维。 In general, conventional piezoelectric fiber composite actuators include mounting a protective polymeric matrix material of the piezoelectric layer of extruded fibers. 交叉梳状电极刻蚀或否则沉积到纤维的顶部和底部上的聚合物薄膜层上,以形成可容易地嵌入到多种类型表面中或布置在它们上的促动器层压薄片。 Interdigitated electrodes etched or otherwise deposited onto the polymeric film layer on the top and bottom of the fibers to form can be easily embedded into various types of surface or actuator is disposed in the laminated sheet on them. 供应到压电材料的功率的频率和电压特性支配了该材料被激活时呈现的形状。 The power supplied to the piezoelectric material and the frequency of the voltage characteristic dominated material is activated rendered shape. 在本发明的实施中可能有用的一种具体类型的压电材料32在例如美国专利No. 6629341中描述。 May be useful in the practice of the present invention, a specific type of piezoelectric material 32 in the example described in U.S. Patent No. 6629341. 然而应该明白,其它压电材料可能也是合适的。 It should however be understood that other piezoelectric materials may also be suitable.

[0062] 图6到图8将单独的涡旋元件M描绘为大体上半球形的形状。 [0062] Figures 6 to 8 will separate scroll element M is depicted as a generally hemispherical shape. 如图8中所描绘, 这种形状可通过使用不同的均等地间隔开的压电材料件来实现,其引起柔性材料层30在施加到材料32的某电压/频率处以大体上均勻的半球形的形状向外凸出,以及在涡旋元件24的缩进位置中向内顺应为凹陷沈的大体上为半球形的形状。 As depicted in FIG. 8, such a shape can be by using a different equally spaced piezoelectric member to achieve, which causes the flexible material layer 30 in the material 32 is applied to a voltage / frequency impose a substantially uniform hemispherical The outwardly convex shape, and in the retracted position of the scroll member 24 is inwardly recessed sink conform substantially hemispherical shape.

[0063] 也可控制供应到压电材料32的功率特性,以产生变化的伸出程度,以及因此涡旋元件的变化的形状。 [0063] may also be supplied to control the power characteristics of the piezoelectric material 32, to produce a varying degree of protruding, and therefore the change in shape of the scroll element.

[0064] 然而应该容易明白,涡旋元件M不限于任何特定的形状或构型,且可使用压电材料32的任何形式或构型来实现涡旋元件的任何期望的形状,包括楔形形状、襟翼等等。 [0064] However, it should be readily apparent, the scroll element M is not limited to any particular shape or configuration, and may use a piezoelectric material in any form or configuration 32 to achieve any desired shape scroll member, includes a wedge shape, flaps, etc.

[0065] 压电材料32可通过导线34由电源进行供应。 [0065] The piezoelectric material 32 may be supplied by a wire 34 by the power supply. 该导线34可结合到保持环结构36 中,其因此可作为用于与特定涡旋元件M相关联的所有多个压电材料件32的电分配汇流管或总线。 The wire 34 may be bonded to the retaining ring structure 36, which thus can be used as the material for all of the plurality of piezoelectric elements with a specific scroll element M associated electrical distribution manifold 32 or bus. 其它用于向压电材料32供应功率的构型处于本发明的范围和精神中。 Other for the supply of power to the piezoelectric material 32 is in the configuration of the scope and spirit of the invention.

[0066] 在一个具体的实施例中,如图3中所描绘,在叶片16上的所有或不同组的涡旋元件M可由共同的可控电源40供应。 [0066] In a particular embodiment, as depicted in Figure 3, all or different groups on the blades 16 of the scroll element M may be a common controllable power supply 40. 通过这种构型,与相同电源40连通的所有涡旋元件M 将呈现相同的运行状态。 By this configuration, all the scroll elements M 40 communicates with the same power supply will exhibit the same operating state. 换言之,取决于由共同电源40供应的功率的特性,连接到相同电源40的一组中的所有元件M将或者展开或者缩进。 In other words, depending on the power source 40 from a common power supply characteristics, connected to the same power source 40 of a group all elements M will either expand or indentation. 在图3所示的实施例中,在吸力侧表面20上的涡旋元件M由单个电源40供应,而在压力侧表面22上的元件M由不同的电源40供应。 In the embodiment shown in FIG. 3, on the suction side surface 20 of the scroll element M 40 is supplied from a single power supply, while on the pressure side surface 22 of the element M by 40 different power supply. 因此,通过这种安排,在吸力侧上的元件M可部署为如图6所示的展开状态,而在压力侧22上的元件M可被激活进入如图7所示的凹进状态。 Thus, by this arrangement, in the suction side of the element M may be deployed as shown in FIG. 6 unfolded state, while on the pressure side 22 of the element M may be activated into the recessed state as shown in Fig. 图4和图5示出了一个实施例,其中在相应的表面20、22上的涡旋元件M由相应的电源40单独地控制。 Figures 4 and 5 show an embodiment in which the respective surfaces 20, 22 of the scroll element M individually controlled by a respective power source 40. 以这种方式, 可设计凹进和展开的涡旋元件M的任何期望的样式或构型,如图4所描绘,其中涂黑的元件M意图描绘展开的涡旋元件,而阴影更浅的元件M意图描绘凹进的涡旋元件。 In this manner, any desired pattern can be designed and expanded recessed scroll element M or configuration, depicted in FIG. 4, wherein the element M blackened intended to depict the expanded scroll member, and the hatched shallower M components are intended to depict scroll element recessed.

[0067] 参照图6和图7,在某些情形下可能希望涡旋元件M呈现第三运行状态,其中,如图6和图7中的虚线所描绘,涡旋元件M的表面与叶片的环绕表面的中性面共同延伸。 [0067] Referring to Figures 6 and 7, in some cases it may be desirable scroll element M exhibits a third operating state, in which, as shown in FIG. 6 and 7 as depicted in dotted line, a scroll member and the surface of the blade M Surround neutral plane surface coextensive. 可能存在有这样的风和空气流状况,其中由于涡旋元件引进的阻滞,涡旋元件的有用性或合意性是最小的,且可能是有害的。 There may be such a wind and air flow conditions, wherein the scroll element due to the introduction of the block, the usefulness or desirability of the scroll element is minimal and may be harmful. 在这种状况下,柔性材料层30可被部署为图6和图7中的虚线构型所示的平坦轮廓状态,其中元件M变为基本上不起作用。 In this situation, the flexible material layer 30 may be deployed as a flat contour status in Figures 6 and 7 shown in dotted line configuration, wherein the element M becomes substantially ineffective.

[0068] 图9描绘了带有多个根据本发明的各方面构造的叶片16的转子轮毂18。 [0068] Figure 9 depicts a hub 18 with a plurality of rotor wheel according to various aspects of the present invention is constructed in the blade 16. 在这个具体的实施例中,各个叶片16包括多组50如本文描述的涡旋元件M。 In this particular embodiment, each vane 16 comprises a plurality of sets 50 as described herein scroll element M. 各组50和与各个叶片16相关联的控制器48相连通。 Each group 50 and 16 of each blade is associated with a controller 48 in communication. 取决于用于各个叶片16的控制方案,控制器48支配供应到单独的组50或供应到各个组50中的单独的涡旋元件的电源的特性。 Depending on the control program for each blade 16, the controller 48 is supplied to a single dominant group 50 or group 50 is supplied to each of the individual characteristics of the scroll element of the power supply. 而相应的控制器48转而与可在轮毂18或机舱14(图1)中可操作地构造的中央控制器/电源46联系。 And the corresponding controller 48 in turn with the hub 18 may be or nacelle 14 (FIG. 1) in a round central controller operatively configured / power contact 46. 单独的控制器48可响应在叶片16的表面上提供的任何形式的传感器42检测到的由单独的叶片16经历的相应的风或其它环境状况而供应有控制信号。 A separate controller 48 may be responsive to any form on the surface of the blade 16 to provide a sensor 42 detected by a separate blade 16 through the respective wind or other environmental conditions and is supplied with the control signal. 例如,传感器42可为载荷传感器,失速传感器或可用于确定叶片16的空气动力学状况的任何其他类型的传感器。 For example, sensor 42 may be any other types of sensors to determine the aerodynamic condition of the blade 16 as a load sensor, or the stall sensor may be used. 传感器42可通过线路44向单独的相应控制器48供应信号,以用于与各个相应叶片16相关联的涡旋元件M的近似实时的控制。 Sensor 42 may be 48 to separate the respective controllers supplied by signal line 44, near real-time control for each of the respective vane with associated scroll member 16 of M.

[0069] 仍参照图9,还应该明白,尽管单独的相应的叶片控制可能是合乎需要的,但这样的控制不是强制性的,且本发明包括基于通过传感器42由任何一个或所有叶片16感测到的状况来共同控制与叶片16相关联的所有涡旋元件M。 [0069] Still referring to FIG. 9, also to be understood that, although individual respective blade control may be desirable, but such control is not mandatory, and the present invention includes a sensor 42 based on by any one or all of the blades 16 being All components of the blade 16 vortex associated with the sensed condition to joint control M.

[0070] 尽管本主题已相对于具体的示例性实施例及其方法进行了详细描述,但将明白, 本领域的技术人员在获得对前述内容的理解后,可能很容易对这样的实施例作出变换、变化和等价物。 [0070] Although the present subject matter has been with respect to specific exemplary embodiments and methods are described in detail, it will be understood that those skilled in the art after gain understanding of the foregoing, may readily be made to these embodiments transformation, changes and equivalents thereof. 因此,本公开的范围通过实例而非通过限制(确定),且本主题公开不排除包括对本领域一般技术人员来说将会容易地明白的对本主题的这样的修改、变化和/或附加。 Accordingly, the scope of the present disclosure by way of example and not by limitation (OK), and the subject disclosure does not preclude inclusion of those of ordinary skill will readily understand the subject of such modifications, changes and / or additions.

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Classifications
International ClassificationF03D11/00, F03D1/06
Cooperative ClassificationF03D80/00, Y02E10/723, F05D2270/17, F05B2240/31, Y02E10/721, F03D7/022, F05B2240/32, F05B2240/122, F05B2240/30, F05B2220/709, F03D1/0633
European ClassificationF03D11/00, F03D7/02D, F03D1/06B6
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