|Publication number||CN101321949 B|
|Application number||CN 200680045596|
|Publication date||13 Mar 2013|
|Filing date||5 Dec 2006|
|Priority date||5 Dec 2005|
|Also published as||CA2631416A1, CN101321949A, EP1963671A1, EP1963671B1, US20090285691, WO2007065434A1|
|Publication number||200680045596.0, CN 101321949 B, CN 101321949B, CN 200680045596, CN-B-101321949, CN101321949 B, CN101321949B, CN200680045596, CN200680045596.0, PCT/2006/689, PCT/DK/2006/000689, PCT/DK/2006/00689, PCT/DK/6/000689, PCT/DK/6/00689, PCT/DK2006/000689, PCT/DK2006/00689, PCT/DK2006000689, PCT/DK200600689, PCT/DK6/000689, PCT/DK6/00689, PCT/DK6000689, PCT/DK600689|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Non-Patent Citations (2), Classifications (13), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: SIPO, Espacenet|
用于风力涡轮机转子的叶片 For a wind turbine rotor blade
技术领域 Technical Field
 本发明涉及用于具有大致水平的转子轴的风力涡轮机转子的叶片，所述转子包括毂，在该处，在沿着纵向轴线的纵向内看去，所述叶片包括最接近所述毂的根部区域、最远离毂的翼面区域和在所述根部区域和所述翼面区域之间可选的过渡区域，且在该处，如在横向内看去，所述叶片包括前缘和后缘以及在所述叶片的所述前缘和所述后缘之间延伸的弦平面，其中所述根部区域具有大致圆形的横截面。 The wind turbine rotor blade  The present invention relates to a rotor having a substantially horizontal axis, said rotor comprising a hub, where, seen in the longitudinal direction along the longitudinal axis, the closest to the blade comprising root hub region, farthest from the hub region of the airfoil and between the root region and the airfoil region optional transition region, and where, as viewed in the transverse direction, said blade comprising a leading edge and the leading edge and the trailing edge of the blade and the chord plane extending between said rear edge, wherein the root region has a substantially circular cross-section.
 背景技术  BACKGROUND
 理想情况下，翼型的叶片形如典型的飞机机翼，其中随着到所述毂的距离的减少，所述叶片的弦平面宽度及其一阶导数持续增加。  Ideally, the blade airfoil shaped like a typical airplane wing, which as to reduce the hub distance of the width of the blade chord plane and its first derivative continues to increase. 这导致叶片在理想情况下在所述毂的附近是相当宽的。 This results in the ideal case the blades near the hub is rather broad. 这在必须将所述叶片安装到所述毂上时再一次导致出现若干问题，而且在所述叶片安装好时由于所述叶片的表面面积较大从而会引起较大的载荷诸如风暴载荷。 This must be a number of issues of the blade when mounted to the hub again cause, but also when the blade is installed due to the large surface area of the blade so as to cause a large load such as storm loads.
 因此，多年来，叶片的构造已经朝着一种形状发展，即：所述叶片包括最接近所述毂的根部区域、最远离所述毂的翼面区域和介于所述根部区域与翼面区域之间的过渡区域。  Thus, for many years, building up a blade has a shape towards development, namely: the blade comprises a root area closest to the hub, farthest from the hub and airfoil region between the root region and the transition zone between the airfoil region. 所述翼面区域具有理想的或近乎理想的叶片形状，而另一方面所述根部区域具有大致圆形的横截面从而减小了风暴载荷并使得将叶片安装到所述毂上更为容易且更安全。 The airfoil area has an ideal or almost ideal blade shape, whereas the root region on the other hand has a substantially circular cross-section which reduces storm loads and makes the blade more easily and mounted on the hub safer. 所述根部区域的直径优选地沿着整个根部区域是恒定的。 The root area diameter is preferably constant along the entire root area. 由于所述圆形横截面，因此所述根部区域无助于所述风力涡轮机的生产，而且，事实上，由于存在风阻力而使产量略为降低。 Due to the circular cross-section, and therefore the root region does not contribute to the production of the wind turbine, and, in fact, due to wind resistance in the yield slightly decreased. 正如其名称所暗示的，所述过渡区域具有从所述根部区域的圆形形状逐渐变为所述翼面区域的翼面轮廓的形状。 As its name implies, the transition region has a shape from the circular shape of the root region gradually become the airfoil region of the airfoil profile. 通常，所述过渡区域的宽度随着到所述毂的距离的增加而大致线性地增加。 Typically, the width of the transition region to increase as the distance from the hub increases substantially linearly.
 在高尔夫领域中，人所共知的是，带凹痕（所谓的凹坑）的高尔夫球能够比具有光滑表面的高尔夫球飞得更远。  In the golf area, known is indented (so-called pits) golf ball can fly farther than a smooth surface of the golf ball. 这是由于所述高尔夫球在飞越天空时经受的空气动力学风阻力的减少。 This is due to a reduction in the golf ball flying across the sky when subjected to aerodynamic wind resistance. 所述高尔夫球受到两种类型的风阻力。 There were two types of the golf wind resistance. 所述第一种类型是由于在所述球移动通过空气时所受到的摩擦力，但摩擦力仅仅解释了所述高尔夫球经受的总的风阻力的一小部分的原因。 The first type is due to the ball moves through the air by the friction, but simply to explain the reason for friction at a fraction of the total of the golf ball is subjected to wind resistance. 所述风阻力的主要部分归因于所述球后方气流的分离，这被称为由于分离导致产生的压力损失。 The main part of the wind resistance is due to airflow separation behind the ball, which is known as a pressure loss due to the separation of lead produced.
 所述高尔夫球后方的分离间隙越大，所述高尔夫球后方的所述压力损失越大。  The golf ball behind the larger separation gap, the greater the pressure loss behind the golf ball. 因而，在所述球的前面和后面之间的压差增加，且因此所述高尔夫经受的所述风阻力也增加。 Thus, the pressure difference between the front and rear of the ball is increased, and thus the golf subjected also increases the wind resistance.
 在层流气流经过球体的情况下，在所述高尔夫球后方的分离间隙相当大，而所述分离间隙对于湍流气流而言则显著地较小。  In the case of laminar air flow through the sphere, the gap separating the rear of the golf ball is quite large, and the separation gap in terms of the turbulent gas stream is significantly smaller. 因此，高尔夫球具有凹坑，这导致围绕所述高尔夫球的气流从湍流状向湍流状变化，这还使得气流“保持”在所述高尔夫球表面上的时间更长，并减小了在所述高尔夫球后方的分离间隙。 Thus, having dimples of golf, which causes the airflow around the golf ball from a turbulent state changes to the turbulent state, which also makes the stream "hold" time on the surface of the golf ball longer, and by reducing the said separation gap golf behind.
 本发明的目的是为风力涡轮机叶片提供新的和改进的构造。  The object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved construction of a wind turbine blade.
 根据本发明，此目的是通过具有设置在至少所述根部区域内的若干凹痕和/或突起的表面区域而达到的，所述凹痕和/或突起成形且具有一定尺寸以改进越过所述叶片的表面的风流动，即，减小在转子旋转期间所述叶片的后缘后方（或根部区域）的分离间隙。  According to the present invention, this object is achieved by having provided at least a number of the root region of indentations and / or projections of the surface area and to achieve, the indentations and / or projections formed and has a certain size in order to improve wind flow across the surface of the blade, i.e., during rotation of the rotor is reduced after the rear edge of the blade (or the root region) of the separation gap. 因而利用了由所述高尔夫球关于产生湍流气流而得知的原理。 Thus the use of the principles by the turbulence on the golf stream and learned. 这样，所述根部部分的空气动力学空气阻力减小，由此使风力涡轮机的产量增加和所述叶片上的风暴载荷减小。 Thus, the root portion of the air dynamics of air resistance is reduced, thereby increasing the yield of the wind turbine blade and storms on the load is reduced. 这尤其是适用于特别宽大的叶片和带有毂延伸件（hub extender)的叶片。 This is especially true for a particular broad leaves and blades with the hub extension (hub extender) in. 优选地,所述表面区域包括大量的凹痕和/或突起。 Preferably, the surface region comprising a large number of indentations and / or projections.
 优选地，所述叶片被成形为由纤维增强聚合物制成的壳体。  Preferably, the blade housing is formed by fiber-reinforced polymer.  根据本发明的叶片的一个优选实施例，所述的表面区域大致沿所述根部区域的整个长度延伸。  According to a preferred blade of the present embodiment of the invention, the surface area of said substantially along the entire length of the root region extends. 因而，所述空气阻力沿所述根部区域的整个长度减小。 Thus, the air resistance along the entire length of the root area is reduced.
 根据一个适当的实施例，所述根部区域具有大致圆形横截面。  In accordance with one suitable embodiment, the root region has a substantially circular cross section. 这样，较容易将所述叶片锚定到所述毂上。 Thus, it was easier to anchor the blade to the hub.
 根据一个特定的实施例，所述表面区域包括第一区部分和第二区域部分，沿一定角度方向看去，在该处第一和第二区域部分分别至少从30度延伸到150度、以及从-30度延伸到-150度，或者分别从60度延伸到135度、以及从-60度延伸到-135度，或者分别从60度延伸到120度、以及从-60度延伸到-120度，在该处从纵向轴线到前缘的线被定义为O度，且从纵向轴线到后缘的线被定义为180度（或-180度）。  According to a particular embodiment, the surface region comprises a portion of the first region and the second region portion, viewed along the direction of a certain angle, where the first and second regions, respectively, at least a portion extending from 30 degrees to 150 degrees, and extends from -30 degrees to -150 degrees, or 60 degrees to extend from 135 degrees, and extends from -60 degrees to -135 degrees, or 60, respectively, extend from degrees to 120 degrees, and extends from -60 degrees to -120 degrees at which the line from the longitudinal axis to the leading edge is defined as O degrees and is defined from the line to the trailing edge of the longitudinal axis 180 degrees (or -180 degrees). 然而，所述凹痕和/或突起可以沿整个角度方向排布，即，从-180度到-180度。 However, the indentations and / or projections can be arranged along the entire angular direction, that is, from -180 degrees to -180 degrees.
 相对于纵向轴线的O度可以基于由所述根部区域经受的生成风向进行定义。  with respect to the longitudinal axis O of the root region may be based on the generation of wind subjected defined. 因为生成风向是实际风速和所述叶片局部速度的累加矢量，因此所述第一和所述第二区域部分的最佳位置取决于到毂的距离。 Because the actual wind speed and wind direction to generate cumulative local velocity vector of the blade, so the first and the best position of the second part of the area depends on the distance of the hub. 因而，所述两个区域部分的位置可以用同样方式沿纵向被扭曲。 Thus, the position of the two regions portion may be distorted in the same way the longitudinal direction. 叶片的所述弦平面经常沿所述叶片的纵向被扭曲。 The chord plane of the blade along the blade longitudinal often distorted.
 根据本发明的一个特定实施例，所述表面区域延伸进入所述过渡区域。  According to a particular embodiment of the present invention, the surface region extending into the transition region. 特别是，所述表面区域至少延伸进入最接近所述毂的所述过渡区域，且优选地大致沿所述过渡区域的所述整个纵向进行延伸。 In particular, the surface region extends at least into the transition area closest to the hub, and preferably said transition substantially along the entire longitudinal region extends.
 根据一个优选实施例，所述表面区域仅沿着所述叶片半径的内部的50 %、或35%、或20%、或10%进行延伸。  According to a preferred embodiment, the surface area is only 50% of the inside along the radius of the blade, or 35%, or 20%, or 10% extends.
 根据一个适当的实施例，在所述过渡区域中的所述第一区域部分和所述第二区域部分围绕横向于所述弦平面的点进行定位，在该处所述过渡区域的所述轮廓具有最大厚度。  In accordance with one suitable embodiment, the portion of the second region in the transition region of the first portion and the surrounding area transverse to the plane of the positioning points of the chord, where the transition region having a maximum thickness of the profile.
 根据一个备择实施例，最接近所述毂并因而经受了最低的生成风速的所述翼面区域的至少一部分具有多个凹痕和/或突起。  According to at least a portion of one alternative embodiment, the closest to the hub and thus subjected to the airfoil region generated the lowest wind speed with a plurality of indentations and / or projections.
 根据一个备择实施例，多个凹痕和/或突起仅被设置在所述根部区域中。  According to an alternative embodiment, a plurality of indentations and / or projections are provided only in the root area.
 根据按照本发明的所述叶片的一个优选实施例，所述表面区域包括多个大致均一的凹痕或突起。  According to a preferred embodiment of the blade according to the present invention, the surface region comprising a plurality of substantially uniform indentations or projections.
 根据一个特别优选的实施例，所述表面区域包括多个大致圆形的、凹入的凹痕。  According to a particularly preferred embodiment, the surface region comprising a plurality of substantially circular, concave indentations. 这对应于高尔夫球上的凹坑。 This corresponds to a pit on golf.
 所述表面区域也可以包括多个六边形凹痕，其允许进一步减小空气阻力。  The surface area may also include a plurality of hexagonal indentations, which allows to further reduce the air resistance. 当然，所述表面区域也可以包括具有各种形状的、诸如任意多边形的若干凹痕或突起的组合。 Of course, the surface area may also include a variety of shapes, such as a plurality of indentations or projections freeform combination.
 此外，所述凹痕和/或突起可具有不同的尺寸。  In addition, the indentations and / or projections may have different sizes. 可根据所述叶片的局部速度选择所述尺寸，这可能意味着例如：若干凹痕的各自面积和深度/高度随着到所述毂的增加的距离而增加。 The size can be selected according to the local speed of the blades, this may mean, for example: the area of each of a plurality of dents and depth / height with increasing distance from the hub to increase.
 所述凹痕和/或突起可以根据预定的图案进行配置，备择地，所述凹痕和/或突起的相互位置可以是随机的。  The indentations and / or projections can be configured according to a predetermined pattern, alternative, said indentations and / or projections of the mutual position may be random.
 根据一个特定实施例，所述凹痕和/或突起具有2-100毫米，3-50毫米或4_20毫米的宽度和1-20毫米、1-10毫米或1-5毫米的深度。  According to a particular embodiment, the indentations and / or projections have a width of 2-100 mm, or 3-50 mm and a depth of 1-20 mm 4_20 mm, 1-5 mm or 1-10 mm.
 根据本发明的一个优选实施例，所述凹痕在所述叶片的所述表面上凹进。  According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the concave indentations on the surface of the blade. 因而，所述表面结构可以在所述叶片的模制过程期间形成。 Thus, the surface structure of the blade may be formed during the molding process.
 备择地，所述凹痕和/或突起可以是一种遮盖物（诸如带或膜）的一部分，其设置在所述叶片的所述表面上。  Alternatively, the portion of the indentations and / or projections may be a covering (such as tape or film) is disposed on the surface of the blade. 这允许借助于现有的模具制造叶片，且在已经模制所述叶片之后将所述遮盖物首先供应到所述叶片的所述表面。 This allows the mold by means of a conventional blade, and after molding of the blade has to be supplied to the first covering the surface of the blade.
 根据本发明，本目的也通过用于遮盖叶片的所述表面的薄膜或箔片达到，所述薄膜或箔片具有适于例如借助于粘合而紧固到所述叶片所述表面的第一面、且具有当所述薄膜被紧固到所述叶片时朝向远离所述叶片所述表面的第二面，在该处所述薄膜的所述第二面具有多个凹痕和/或突起。  According to the present invention, this object is also used by covering the surface of the blade to achieve a film or foil, said foil or film having, for example by means of a suitable bonding and secured to the surface of the blade a first surface, and when the film is having secured to the blade surface of the blade facing away from said second surface, said second surface where said thin film having a plurality of dents and / or projections.
附图说明 Brief Description
 通过在附图中所示的若干实施例而在下面对本发明更具体地加以解释，其中：  The several embodiments shown in the accompanying drawings and the lower face of the present invention more specifically be explained, in which:
 图I示出了所述翼型的一种理想叶片的顶视图，  Figure I shows a top view of an ideal blade of the airfoil,
 图2示出了所述翼型的一种常规叶片的立体透视图，和  FIG. 2 shows a perspective view of the wing of a conventional blade, and
 图3a和3b示出了分别在一个光滑球体之上和在表面上具有若干凹痕的一个球体之上的气流，  Figures 3a and 3b show on top of a smooth sphere and a sphere having a plurality of dimples on the surface of the stream respectively,
 图4示出了根据本发明的一个叶片的第一实施例，  FIG. 4 shows a first embodiment of a blade according to the present invention,
 图5示出了穿过根据本发明的一个叶片的第二实施例的所述根部区域的横截面视图，和  FIG. 5 shows a cross sectional view through the region of the root of a blade according to a second embodiment of the present invention, and
 图6示出了穿过根据本发明的一个叶片的第二实施例的所述过渡区域的横截面视图。  FIG. 6 shows a cross-sectional view through the transition region of an embodiment of a blade according to the present invention, a second.
具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION
 图I示出了所述翼型的一种理想叶片101的一个实施例。  Figure I illustrates an ideal blade of the airfoil 101 in one embodiment. 所述叶片具有适于固定到风力涡轮机的毂上的根部部分102。 Said blade having a root adapted to be fixed to the hub of the wind turbine section 102. 所述理想叶片101被设计为使得所述叶片101的所述宽度随着到所述毂的距离L的增加而减小。 The ideal blade 101 is designed such that the width of the blade to the hub 101 with increasing distance L decreases. 另外，所描述的叶片101的所述宽度的一阶导数也随着到所述毂101的距离的增加而减小，这意味着，在理想情况下，所述叶片101在所述根部区域102处非常宽。 Further, the first derivative of the width of the blade 101 described also with increasing distance to the hub 101 is reduced, which means that, ideally, the blade 101 at the root region 102 at very wide. 这导致对于将所述叶片101固定到所述毂上而言产生若干问题。 This leads to the blade 101 is fixed to the hub on a number of issues in terms of produce. 此外，在安装时，由于叶片101的宽大表面面积，所述叶片101用大风暴载荷冲击所述毂。 In addition, during installation, because the large surface area of the blade 101, 101 of the blade to the hub with a large storm impact loads.
 因此，多年来，叶片的构造已经朝着一种形状发展，S卩：所述叶片的外面部分对应于所述理想的叶片101，而所述根部区域的表面区域与理想的叶片相比显著减小。  Thus, over the years, the blade structure has developed towards a shape, S Jie: the outer part of the blade corresponds to the ideal blade 101, and the surface area of the blade root region and the ideal relative ratio is significantly reduced. 此实施例用图I中的虚线图示，其透视图在图2中示出。 This embodiment with a dotted line shown in Figure I, which is shown in perspective view in FIG.  如图2可见，常规的叶片201包括最接近所述毂的根部区域202、离所述毂最远的翼面区域204和介于所述根部区域202和所述翼面区域204之间的过渡区域203。  2 seen in FIG. 201 comprises a conventional blade root area closest to the hub 202, furthest away from the hub 204 and the airfoil region between the root region and the airfoil region 202 of 204 transition region 203 between. 所述叶片201包括：当所述叶片安装到所述毂上时，朝向所述叶片201的旋转方向的前缘205、以及朝向与所述前缘205相反方向的后缘206。 The blade 201 comprises: when the blade is mounted to said hub, said blade toward the direction of rotation 201 of the leading edge 205, and toward the leading edge and the trailing edge 205 opposite the direction 206. 所述翼面区域204具有一种理想的或近乎理想的叶片形状，而另一方面所述根部区域202具有大致圆形的横截面，这减小了风暴载荷并使得将所述叶片201安装到所述毂上更为容易且更安全。 The airfoil area 204 has an ideal or almost ideal blade shape, whereas the root region 202 on the other hand has a substantially circular cross-section, which reduces storm loads and such that the blade 201 is mounted to The easier and safer on the hub. 优选地，所述根部区域202的直径沿所述整个根部区域202恒定。 Preferably, the diameter of the root region 202 along the entire root area 202 constant. 所述过渡区域203具有从所述根部区域202的圆形形状逐渐变为所述翼面区域204的翼面轮廓的形状。 The transition region 203 having a circular shape from the root region 202 gradually becomes the shape of the airfoil region 204 of airfoil contour. 所述过渡区域203的宽度随着到所述毂的距离L的增加而大致线性地增加。 The width of the transition region 203 increases as the distance L of the hub and substantially increases linearly.  所述翼面区域204具有一种带有在所述叶片201的所述前缘205和所述后缘206之间延伸的弦平面K的翼型。  The airfoil area 204 has an airfoil with a leading edge in the chord plane of the blade 205 and 201 extending between the rear edge 206 of the K. 所述弦平面的宽度随着到所述毂的距离L的增加而减小。 The width of the chord plane with increasing distance from the hub to L decreases. 应该注意到：所述弦平面不总是在其整个范围内笔直延展，因为所述叶片可以被扭曲和/或弯曲，因而给所述弦平面提供相应扭曲和/或弯曲过程，这是最常见的情况以便补偿取决于到所述毂的半径的所述叶片的局部速度。 It should be noted: the plane is not always a straight extension chord in its entire range, because the blade can be twisted and / or curved, and thus to provide the chord plane twisting and / or bending process, which is the most common depending on the case in order to compensate for the local velocity of the blade to the hub radius.
 由于所述圆形横截面，所述根部区域202无助于所述风力涡轮机的生产，而且，事实上，由于风阻力而使产量略为降低。  Because of the circular cross-section, the root region 202 does not contribute to the production of the wind turbine, and, in fact, due to wind resistance in the yield slightly decreased.
 图3a示出了经过球体50的层流气流52，而图3b示出了经过带有若干凹坑的球体60的湍流气流62。  Figure 3a shows a laminar air flow 50 through the ball 52, while Figure 3b shows a turbulent air flow through the sphere 60 with a plurality of recesses 62. 在层流气流52的情况下，在所述球体50后方的分离间隙51相对较大。 In the case of laminar flow stream 52, the separation gap 51 at the rear of the sphere 50 is relatively large. 因此，在所述球体后方存在较大的压降，且因而在所述球体50的前部和后部之间的压差是相应较大的。 Thus, there is a big drop in the sphere rearward, and thus the pressure difference between the front and rear ball 50 is correspondingly larger in. 所述压差导致作用力作用在所述球体的所述后部上。 The pressure differential resulting in a force acting on the rear of the sphere. 在湍流气流62的情况下，在所述球体60后方的分离间隙61显著地较小，且因而介于所述球体60的所述前部和所述后部之间的压差显著地较小，且因此朝所述球体的所述后部作用的力也是较小的。 In the case of turbulent air flow 62 separation gap at the rear of the sphere 60 61 significantly smaller, and therefore significantly smaller between the pressure of the front and the rear balls between 60 and thus force acting towards the rear of the sphere is smaller.
 为何例如高尔夫球具有带若干凹痕或所谓的凹坑的表面的原因是基于改变所述球的临界雷诺数的需要，所述临界雷诺数即在所述流动从层流变为湍流条件下的数值。  The reason why, for example with a number of golf with a dent or a so-called surface pits is based on the need to change the critical Reynolds number of the ball, and the critical Reynolds number that is in the flow from laminar to turbulent flow Numerical conditions. 对于图3b中所示的一个光滑表面，所述临界雷诺数比高尔夫球移动通过空气时所达到的平均雷诺数高得多。 For a smooth surface shown in Figure 3b, the critical Reynolds number is much higher than the average golf ball moving through the air Reynolds reached.
 对于具有经喷砂处理表面的高尔夫球而言，其在临界雷诺数条件下风阻力的减小大于带若干凹坑的高尔夫球的情况。  For a sandblasted surface of golf, its condition at the critical Reynolds number is greater than the decrease wind resistance with a number of pits golf situation. 但是所述风阻力随着雷诺数的增加而增加。 However, the wind resistance increases with increasing Reynolds number. 然而，带有若干凹坑的高尔夫球具有较低的临界雷诺数，且对于比所述临界雷诺数更高的雷诺数而言，所述阻力是大致恒定的。 However, a number of pits with a golf ball having a lower critical Reynolds number, and is higher than the critical Reynolds number for the Reynolds number is concerned, the resistance is substantially constant.
 换句话说，所述的若干凹痕确保了所述临界雷诺数的减小，这导致所述流动比光滑球体情况在更低的风速条件下变为湍流。  In other words, the number of dents to ensure a reduction of the critical Reynolds number, which causes the flow becomes turbulent situation than smooth sphere at lower wind speeds. 这使得所述气流“保持”在所述高尔夫球的表面上的时间更长，这导致风阻力的减小。 This makes the airflow "holding" longer on the surface of the golf ball, which results in reduced wind resistance.
 所述表面背后所基于的计划是：根据由高尔夫球已公知的所述原理，利用此已公知效应，尤其是减小在所述风力涡轮机叶片的那些部件的所述风阻力，在该处所述叶片不具有理想的翼面轮廓。 Program  The back surface is based is: by a golf ball, according to principles well known, the use of this effect has been known, in particular, is to reduce the wind resistance of the wind turbine blade in those parts, in where the blade does not have the desired airfoil contour.
 图4示出根据本发明的一种叶片1，其中所述根部区域2和所述过渡区域3具有多个凹痕和/或突起7。  Figure 4 illustrates a blade according to the present invention 1, wherein the root area 2 and the transition area 3 has a plurality of indentations and / or projections 7. 下面，它们被称为凹痕或凹坑，但显而易见的是，它们可以是凹入及凸起（即，突起）。 Below, they are referred to dents or pits, but it is clear that they may be concave and convex (i.e., protrusions). 所述叶片I的翼面区域不具有凹痕。 The blade airfoil area I do not have dimples. 所述根部区域2沿其整个纵向方向具有若干凹痕7，且所述凹痕7优选地配置为全部围绕所述圆形根部区域2。 The root area 2 has a plurality of indentations 7 along its entire longitudinal direction, and the dents 7 is preferably configured to surround the entire circular root region 2. 所述过渡区域3被描述为沿其整个纵向方向具有若干凹痕。 The transition region is described as 3 along its entire longitudinal direction has several dents. 然而，最重要的是，位于最接近所述根部区域2处的所述过渡区域3的所述区域具有若干凹痕7，这是因为所述横截面轮廓的这点示出了与所述理想翼型的最大偏离。 However, the most important is the region located nearest to the root region 2 of the transition region 3 has a plurality of indentations 7, this is because the cross-sectional profile of this illustrates the ideal airfoil maximum deviation. 应该注意到：为清晰起见，单个图示出的凹痕7不是按规定比例进行绘制的且在图中更大，且事实上它们通常显著地更小。 It should be noted: For clarity, a single dent 7 illustrated than by regulations drawn to scale and are bigger in the drawing, and in fact they are usually significantly smaller.
 优选地，所述整个根部区域2在所述角度方向内具有若干凹坑7。  Preferably, the entire root area 2 has a plurality of recesses 7 in the angular direction. 但是因为所述叶片的旋转方向相对于所述风向（与高尔夫球相反）被明确定义，将若干凹坑提供给第一区域部分8和第二区域部分9可以是足以满足需要的。 However, since the direction of rotation of the blade relative to the wind direction (opposite to the golf ball) it is clearly defined, the plurality of dimples to the first region and the second region part 8 part 9 may be sufficient to meet the needs. 所述区域部分8、9可以如图5所示的配置。 The region portions 8,9 can be configured as shown in FIG. 5. 从所述叶片I的所述纵向轴线10朝所述叶片的所述前缘5 的线被定义为具有O度的角度，而从所述叶片I的所述纵向轴线10朝向所述叶片的所述后缘的线被定义为具有180度的角度。 Is defined from the longitudinal axis of the blade I 10 toward the leading edge line of the blade 5 has O-degree angle, while 10 toward the longitudinal axis of the blade from said blade I of the described later, the edge line is defined as having an angle of 180 degrees. 所述第一区域部分8在从角度Ct1到角度α 2的角度方向内延伸，而所述第二区域部分9从-Ci1到-Ci2的角度方向内延伸。 8 in the first area portion from the point Ct1 to extend within an angle α 2 of the angular direction, and said second portion 9 extending from the inner region to -Ci2 -Ci1 the angular direction. 优选地，角度αι = 30度且α2 = 150度，但是角度α工=60度且α 2 = 135度可以是足以ί两足需要的，且甚至于角度ct i = 60度且α 2=120度是足以满足需要的。 Preferably, αι = 30 degrees and the angle α2 = 150 degrees, but the angle α = 60 degrees and work α 2 = 135 degrees may be sufficient ί bipedal required, and even the angle ct i = 60 degrees and α 2 = 120 degree is sufficient to meet the need.
 优选地，在所述叶片I的所述前缘5和所述后缘6之间延伸的所述叶片的所述弦平面K被定向为其跟随生成的局部风向。  Preferably, the leading edge of the blade 5 and I of the trailing edge of the blade 6 extending between the chord plane K is oriented to follow their local wind-generated. 因为这取决于所述叶片的所述局部速度，所述弦平面优选地在所述叶片I的所述纵向方向L内扭曲。 Because it depends on the local velocity of the blade, the chord plane of the blade is preferably in the longitudinal direction L I twisted inside. 因而，所述两个区域部分8、9的所述局部位置也可以在所述叶片I的所述纵向方向L内扭曲。 Thus, the portion of the two regions 8,9 are to be in the local position of the longitudinal direction of the blade I L within twisted.
 图6示出了穿过所述过渡区域3的剖面，其中所述轮廓的后缘6或多或少可以是钝的或截头的。  FIG. 6 shows a cross-section through the transition region 3, wherein after said edge contour 6 or less may be blunt or truncated. 在所图示的实施例中，所述凹痕7再次被配置在两个不同区域部分8、9中。 In the embodiment illustrated, the indentations 7 are again arranged in two different regions of the portions 8,9. 优选地，所述区域部分围绕横向于所述弦平面K的点进行定位，在该处所述轮廓的厚度T最大。 Preferably, the area around the portion of the plane K transverse to the chord point positioning, where the maximum thickness T of the profile. 但是如在所述根部区域2中，所述凹痕7优选地配置为全部围绕所述过渡区域3、或至少从所述区域开始，其中所述轮廓的所述厚度T是最大的，始终高达所述叶片I的所述后缘6。 However, as in the root region 2, the dimple 7 is preferably configured to surround the entire region of the transition 3, or at least from the beginning of the area, wherein the thickness T of the profile is the greatest, always up to I said after the blade edge 6.
 为清晰起见，图5和图6中图示的所述凹痕7同样不是按比例进行绘制的，且优选地相对于所述轮廓的所述尺寸显著更小。  For clarity, FIG. 5 and the indentations 6 illustrated in FIG 7 also not drawn to scale, and preferably with respect to the size of the contour is significantly smaller.
 所述凹痕7优选地形如圆形、凹入的凹痕，对应于高尔夫球上的凹坑。  The dent 7 is preferably formed as a circular, concave indentations, corresponding to the dimple on the golf. 然而，它们可以是三角形的、矩形的、六边形的或具有任何其它多边形形状。 However, they may be triangular, rectangular, hexagonal or any other polygonal shape. 例如，六边形形状比圆形凹痕进一步减小了所述风阻力。 For example, hexagonal shape than circular dent further reduce the wind resistance. 所述凹痕也可以具有变化的形状。 The indentations may also have varying shapes.
 所述凹痕7也可以具有变化的尺寸。  The indentations 7 may have varying dimensions. 优选地，在所述叶片I的尺寸以及所述叶片I所经受的风速的基础上选择所述尺寸。 Preferably, selecting the size based on the size of the blade and the blade I I experienced by the wind speed. 因为所述叶片I的局部速度随着到所述毂的距离L的增加而增加，所述生成的局部风速也随着到所述毂的距离的增加而增加。 Because the local velocity of the blade I to the hub with increasing distance L increases, the local wind velocity generated along with the increase in the distance from the hub increases. 因而可基于到所述毂的距离L选择所述凹痕7的尺寸。 Thus based on the distance L to select the hub of the dent size 7. 所述凹痕7的相互位置可以在预定的图案之后配置或可以是随机的。 The dent mutual position 7 can be configured or may be random after a predetermined pattern.
 所述凹痕7可以在制造所述叶片I的过程中成形，即在模制过程本身期间。  The indentations 7 may be formed during the manufacturing process of the blade I, i.e. during the molding process itself. 它们也可以在模制所述叶片之后凹进。 They can also be recessed after the molding of the blade. 备择地，所述凹痕7通过随后用带有若干凹痕的带或薄膜覆盖所述叶片I的所述表面而形成。 Alternatively, the indentations of the blades 7 through the I subsequently said surface with a tape or a film with a plurality of dimples formed cover.
 减小在所述风力涡轮机的塔上的所述风暴载荷、而同时减小在所述风力涡轮机叶片上的所述风暴载荷，这可以是有利的。  The decrease in the tower of the wind turbine load the storm, while reduced in the wind turbine blade load the storm, it may be advantageous. 通常，所述塔具有大致圆形的横截面，且通过将旋转地连接到所述塔的构造装设到所述塔的尤其是最上部，从而使得所述塔的所述横截面与所述构造一起具有降阻轮廓（drag reductionprofile)的形状，即大致对称的液滴形,可以获得相当大的风暴载荷的减少，如模拟构型中所示。 Typically, the column having a substantially circular cross-section, and by rotatably connected to the tower structure mounted to the upper portion of the column, especially the most, so that the cross section of the column and the constructed together with a reduction in resistance profile (drag reductionprofile) a shape that is substantially symmetrical droplet form, you can get a considerable reduction in storm loads, as shown in the analog configuration. 所述构造必须以一种方式旋转地连接到塔上，所述方式即其自动地相对于风向进行自定向从而使得所述“滴尖端”指向所述风向。 The structure must be rotatably connected to the tower in a way, that is the way it automatically self-orientation with respect to the wind direction so that the "drip tip" points to the wind direction.
 本发明已经结合优选实施例加以说明。  The present invention has been described in connection with preferred embodiments will be described. 可以构思到许多修改而不会由此偏离本发明的范畴。 It is contemplated that numerous modifications without thereby departing from the scope of the invention. 对本领域的技术人员显而易见的修改和变化被认为是属于本发明的范畴。 Those skilled in the art of the obvious modifications and variations are considered to belong to the scope of the present invention.  附图标记列表  List of reference numerals
 1,101,201 叶片 , 101, 201 leaves
 2，102，202 根部区域 , 102, 202 root area
 3,203 过渡区域  3,203 transitional area
 4,204 翼面区域  4,204 airfoil region
 5，205 前缘  5,205 leading edge
 6,206 后缘  6,206 trailing edge
 7 凹痕/突起，凹坑  7 dent / protruding pits
 8 第一区域部分  The first area portion 8
 9 第二区域部分  The second area portion 9
 10 纵向轴线  10 longitudinal axis
 50 光滑球体  50 smooth sphere
 51 分离间隙  51 separation gap
 52 气流  52 stream
 60 带凹坑的球体  60 balls with dimples
 61 分离间隙  61 separation gap
 62 气流  62 stream
 α I 第一角度  α I first angle
 α 2 第二角度  α 2 second angle
 L 纵向方向  L longitudinal direction
 K 弦平面  K chord plane
 T 厚度  T thickness
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|DE4316712A1||19 May 1993||24 Nov 1994||Thomas Fischer||Self-regulating propellor (airscrew)|
|US2003/0099546||Title not available|
|US2800291||20 Oct 1951||23 Jul 1957||Stephens Arthur Veryan||Solid boundary surface for contact with a relatively moving fluid medium|
|US3578264||9 Jul 1968||19 Nov 1991||Univ Michigan||Title not available|
|WO2000/15961A1||Title not available|
|WO2001/16482A1||Title not available|
|WO2005/035978A1||Title not available|
|Cooperative Classification||F05C2253/12, F05B2250/28, F03D1/0633, Y02E10/721, F05B2250/18, F05B2250/132, F05B2250/131, F05B2240/32, F05B2250/141, F05B2280/6011, F05B2250/712, F05B2250/70|
|10 Dec 2008||C06||Publication|
|4 Feb 2009||C10||Entry into substantive examination|
|13 Mar 2013||C14||Grant of patent or utility model|
|20 Jan 2016||EXPY||Termination of patent right or utility model|